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Equilibrium in Chemistry Flashcards

Equilibrium in Chemistry Flashcards
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How to calculate the solubility constant, Ksp, for an ionic compound (AxBy) in a saturated solution at equilibrium
Ksp = A ions * B ions, where brackets mean 'concentration of this'. When a molecule has 2 or more atoms of a certain ion, each atom counts separately in solution concentration.
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Define the term: solubility equilibrium
An equilibrium between a solution and a solid precipitate.
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In LeChatelier's principle, this is how adding or decreasing concentration of one chemical species (product or reactant) affects the reaction.
Decreasing concentration of one species makes the reaction shift toward that side. Increasing concentration of one species makes the reaction shift toward the opposite side.
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In LeChatelier's principle, the effect of pressure on a reaction
Increased pressure makes the reaction 'want' to shift in the direction that gives the fewest number of gas molecules.
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Define LeChatelier's Principle
If a chemical reaction is in equilibrium and you change things (by adding a reactant or product, or by changing the pressure or temperature), the reaction will move to return to equilibrium.
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How to find the equilibrium constant, Keq, for aA + bB <-> cC. Capital letters = a reactant or product. Lowercase letters = integer/coefficient.
Keq = C^c / (A^a * B^b), where brackets mean you use the concentration of that product or reactant.
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Define the term: dynamic equilibrium
A chemical reaction that's always 'in motion,' with some molecules reacting and others going in reverse (products to reactants). But overall, the reaction basically stays in equilibrium.
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How to use the reaction quotient (Q) and equilibrium constant (Keq) to interpret the state of a reaction
If Q > Keq, there's more product. The reaction moves toward the reactants. If Q < Keq, there's more reactants. The reaction moves toward the products. If Q = Keq, the reaction's at equilibrium.
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How to find the reaction quotient, Q, for aA + bB <-> cC + dD. Capital letters = a reactant or product. Lowercase letters = integer/coefficient.
When the reaction is not at equilibrium, Q = (C^c * D^d) / (A^a * B^b), where brackets are the concentration of the reactant or product.
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How to find the equilibrium constant, Keq, for aA + bB <-> cC + dD. Capital letters = a reactant or product. Lowercase letters = integer/coefficient.
When the reaction is at equilibrium, Keq = (C^c * D^d) / (A^a * B^b), where brackets mean the concentration of the reactant or product.
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Flashcard Content Overview

In these flashcards, we'll cover several key concepts related to equilibrium in chemical reactions. You can refresh your memory of how to interpret a reaction's status with the reaction quotient and the equilibrium constant; test your knowledge of what LeChatelier's Principle says about changes to a reaction and their effect on equilibrium; and review the meaning of the solubility constant, pH, and buffers.

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How to find the equilibrium constant, Keq, for aA + bB <-> cC + dD. Capital letters = a reactant or product. Lowercase letters = integer/coefficient.
When the reaction is at equilibrium, Keq = (C^c * D^d) / (A^a * B^b), where brackets mean the concentration of the reactant or product.
How to find the reaction quotient, Q, for aA + bB <-> cC + dD. Capital letters = a reactant or product. Lowercase letters = integer/coefficient.
When the reaction is not at equilibrium, Q = (C^c * D^d) / (A^a * B^b), where brackets are the concentration of the reactant or product.
How to use the reaction quotient (Q) and equilibrium constant (Keq) to interpret the state of a reaction
If Q > Keq, there's more product. The reaction moves toward the reactants. If Q < Keq, there's more reactants. The reaction moves toward the products. If Q = Keq, the reaction's at equilibrium.
Define the term: dynamic equilibrium
A chemical reaction that's always 'in motion,' with some molecules reacting and others going in reverse (products to reactants). But overall, the reaction basically stays in equilibrium.
How to find the equilibrium constant, Keq, for aA + bB <-> cC. Capital letters = a reactant or product. Lowercase letters = integer/coefficient.
Keq = C^c / (A^a * B^b), where brackets mean you use the concentration of that product or reactant.
Define LeChatelier's Principle
If a chemical reaction is in equilibrium and you change things (by adding a reactant or product, or by changing the pressure or temperature), the reaction will move to return to equilibrium.
In LeChatelier's principle, the effect of pressure on a reaction
Increased pressure makes the reaction 'want' to shift in the direction that gives the fewest number of gas molecules.
In LeChatelier's principle, this is how adding or decreasing concentration of one chemical species (product or reactant) affects the reaction.
Decreasing concentration of one species makes the reaction shift toward that side. Increasing concentration of one species makes the reaction shift toward the opposite side.
Define the term: solubility equilibrium
An equilibrium between a solution and a solid precipitate.
How to calculate the solubility constant, Ksp, for an ionic compound (AxBy) in a saturated solution at equilibrium
Ksp = A ions * B ions, where brackets mean 'concentration of this'. When a molecule has 2 or more atoms of a certain ion, each atom counts separately in solution concentration.
What solubility constant (Ksp) tells us about the solubility.
Higher Ksp values mean that this solute is very soluble in that solvent. Lower Ksp values mean the solute is not very soluble.
This ion determines the pH of an aqueous solution
Concentration of H+ ions in solution
Define the term: buffer solution
A solution containing a weak base and the same amount of its conjugate acid, or a weak acid and the same amount of its conjugate base.
pH of a buffer solution
pH = -log(Ka), where Ka is the equilibrium constant. Ka = H3O+X- / HX, where brackets mean 'concentration of'.
How to find pH of a solution at equilibrium, given Ka and Molarity.
Ka = H3O+A- / HA. Molarity is HA, and H3O+ is the same as A-. Solve the equation for H3O+. Now use the formula pH = -log(H3O+).
Ion product vs. solubility product
Ion product is the given concentration of ions multiplied together; solubility product (Ksp) is the product of ion concentrations at equilibrium. If they're equal, the system is at equilibrium.
Common Ion Effect
When a solution has two different solutes with the same ion, each solute is less soluble. AgCl dissolves better in water than in NaCl solution (because the Cl ion is in both AgCl & NaCl).
Define the term, RICE Table, and state what R, I, C, & E stand for.
A table used to calculate the concentrations of reactants and products before and during equilibrium. (RICE stands for Reaction, Initial, Change, and Equilibrium.)

Meaning of C and X in this sample RICE table:

ReactionA <----> B
InitialC0
Change-x+x
EquilibriumC-xx
C = initial concentration of chemical A. X = the change in concentrations of A & B needed to reach equilibrium, and also the final concentration of chemical B.
Meaning of differences between the ion product and the solubility product
If the ion product is greater than the solubility product, the ions will precipitate into a solid. If the ion product is less than the solubility product, the solid will dissolve into ions.
Define the term: titration
Using a known test solution (acid or base) to analyze a mystery solution (base or acid) via neutralization.

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