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Flashcards - Animal & Human Anatomy & Physiology

Flashcards - Animal & Human Anatomy & Physiology
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cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium
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testes
The testicle is the male gonad in animals
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pituitary gland
In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0
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ovaries
The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs in the female as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system
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endocrine system
The endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs
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adrenal glands
The adrenal glands are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol
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spinal cord
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column
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central nervous system
The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
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brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals
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pulmonary circuit
Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart
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blood vessels
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body
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blood
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells
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small intestine
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the digestion and absorption of food takes place
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digestive system
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion
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liver
The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals
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kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates
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respiratory system
The respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism
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photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities
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capillaries
Capillaries are the smallest of a body's blood vessels that make up the microcirculation
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Homeostasis
Homeostasis or homoeostasis is the property of a system in which a variable is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant
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Homeostasis
Homeostasis or homoeostasis is the property of a system in which a variable is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant
capillaries
Capillaries are the smallest of a body's blood vessels that make up the microcirculation
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities
respiratory system
The respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism
kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates
liver
The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals
digestive system
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion
small intestine
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the digestion and absorption of food takes place
blood
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells
blood vessels
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body
pulmonary circuit
Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart
brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals
central nervous system
The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column
adrenal glands
The adrenal glands are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol
endocrine system
The endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs
ovaries
The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs in the female as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system
pituitary gland
In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0
testes
The testicle is the male gonad in animals
cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium
contract
A contract is a voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable at law as a binding legal agreement
smooth muscle
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle
ulna
The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm
antigens
An antigen is a molecule that binds to Ag-specific receptors, but cannot necessarily induce an immune response in the body by itself
autoimmune disease
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part
immune system
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease
leukocytes
White blood cells , also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders
lymph nodes
A lymph node is an oval- or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, present widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels
lymphatic vessels
In anatomy, lymphatic vessels or lymph vessels are thin walled, valved structures that carry lymph
epididymis
The epididymis is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system
gametes
A gamete is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce
cervix
The cervix or cervix uteri is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system
embryo
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism
medulla
The medulla oblongata is located in the hindbrain, anterior to the cerebellum
uterus
The uterus or womb is a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ of most mammals, including humans
mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei
zygote
A zygote , is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes
control system
A control system is a device, or set of devices, that manages, commands, directs or regulates the behaviour of other devices or systems
Chemoreceptors
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a sensory receptor that transduces a chemical signal into an action potential
stimulus
In physiology, a stimulus is a detectable change in the internal or external environment
gas exchange
Gas exchange is a biological process through which different gases are transferred in opposite directions across a specialized respiratory surface
urethra
In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of fluids from the body
adrenaline
Epinephrine, also known as adrenalin or adrenaline, is primarily a medication and a hormone
thyroid
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid /ˈθaɪrɔɪd/, is an endocrine gland in the throat, and consists of two connected lobes
thymus
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system
isthmus
An isthmus is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water that otherwise separates them
menses
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina
mating system
A mating system is a way in which a group is structured in relation to sexual behaviour
reproductive behaviors
Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents"
larynx
The larynx /ˈlærɪŋks/ , commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration
lungs
The lungs are the primary organs of respiration in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails
veins
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart
gallbladder
In vertebrates the gallbladder is a small organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine
stomach
The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the gastrointestinal tract that functions as an important organ in the digestive system
allergens
An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body
spleen
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates
vagina
The vagina is a muscular and tubular part of the female genital tract, which in humans extends from the vulva to the cervix
polygamy
Polygamy involves marriage with more than one spouse
puberty
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction

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