Flashcards - Basic Genetics

Flashcards - Basic Genetics
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genotype
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic of that cell/organism/individual
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Dominant allele
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus
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chromosomes
A chromosome is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism
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chromatin
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA
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tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
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transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
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nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells
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messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
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messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells
transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
chromatin
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA
chromosomes
A chromosome is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism
Dominant allele
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus
genotype
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic of that cell/organism/individual
dihybrid cross
Dihybrid cross is a pranit cross between two different lines that differ in two observed traits
monohybrid cross
A monohybrid cross is a mating between two individuals with different alleles at one genetic locus of interest
Punnett square
The Punnett square is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
ribonucleic acid
Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes
nucleosome
A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores
homologous pairs
A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosomes that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis
proband
"Proband", "proposito" , or "proposita" is a term used most often in medical genetics and other medical fields to denote a particular subject being studied or reported on
nucleotides
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA

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