Flashcards - Basics of DNA & RNA

Flashcards - Basics of DNA & RNA
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phosphodiester bond
A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds
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translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
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transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
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tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
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messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
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nucleotide
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA
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nucleotide
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA
messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
phosphodiester bond
A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds
polynucleotide
A polynucleotide molecule is a biopolymer composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain
base pairs
A base pair is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds
double-helix
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA
ribonucleic acid
Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes
pyrimidines
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine
James Watson
James Dewey Watson is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick

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