Flashcards - Cell Biology

Flashcards - Cell Biology
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strength
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains
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cell wall
A cell wall is a structural layer that surrounds most types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane
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chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is a term used for several closely related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants
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mitochondria
The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms, although some cells in some organisms may lack them
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Intermediate filaments
Intermediate filaments are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of vertebrate animal species, and perhaps also in other animals, fungi, plants, and unicellular organisms
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translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
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ribosome
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis
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tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
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nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells
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nucleolus
The nucleolus is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly
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chromatin
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA
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endocytosis
Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules into the cell by engulfing them in an energy-using process
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diffusion
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
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Proteins
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues
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Proteins
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues
diffusion
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
endocytosis
Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules into the cell by engulfing them in an energy-using process
chromatin
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA
nucleolus
The nucleolus is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly
nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells
tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
ribosome
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis
translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
Intermediate filaments
Intermediate filaments are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of vertebrate animal species, and perhaps also in other animals, fungi, plants, and unicellular organisms
mitochondria
The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms, although some cells in some organisms may lack them
chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is a term used for several closely related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants
cell wall
A cell wall is a structural layer that surrounds most types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane
strength
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains
cell membrane
The cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment
DNA replication
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule
prokaryotes
A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus , mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle
transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
fluid mosaic model
The Fluid Mosaic Model explains various observations regarding the structure of functional cell membranes
eukaryote
A eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes
lysogenic cycle
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction
virus
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms
endomembrane system
The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell
lysosome
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in most animal cells
nuclear pores
Nuclear pores are large protein complexes that cross the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus
Microtubules
Microtubules are a component of the cytoskeleton, found throughout the cytoplasm
thylakoids
A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria
Golgi apparatus
The Golgi apparatus , also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells

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