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Flashcards - Cell Growth & The Process of Cell Division

Flashcards - Cell Growth & The Process of Cell Division
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telomere
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes
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Trisomy
A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two
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nondisjunction
Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division
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centrosome
In cell biology, the centrosome is an organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression
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mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei
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interphase
Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life
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cell cycle
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA to produce two daughter cells
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chromatin
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA
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genome
In modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism
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gametes
A gamete is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce
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chromosomes
A chromosome is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism
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chromosomes
A chromosome is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism
gametes
A gamete is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce
genome
In modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism
chromatin
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA
cell cycle
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA to produce two daughter cells
interphase
Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life
mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei
centrosome
In cell biology, the centrosome is an organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression
nondisjunction
Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division
Trisomy
A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two
telomere
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes
homologs
In the context of biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa
nucleosome
A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores
chromatid
A chromatid is one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the other copy by a single centromere
microtubule
Microtubules are a component of the cytoskeleton, found throughout the cytoplasm
mitotic spindle
In cell biology, the spindle apparatus refers to the cytoskeletal structure of eukaryotic cells that forms during cell division to separate sister chromatids between daughter cells
crossing over
Chromosomal crossover is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction
aneuploid
Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46
Chromosome condensation
DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo
karyotype
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
centromere
The centromere is the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids or a dyad
sister chromatid
A sister chromatid refers to either of the two identical copies formed by the replication of a single chromosome, with both copies joined together by a common centromere
homologous recombination
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA

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