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Flashcards - Earth's Natural Materials & Processes

Flashcards - Earth's Natural Materials & Processes
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air
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity
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body fossil
Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past
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weathering
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, waters and biological organisms
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faults
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock mass movement
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nitrogen cycle
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into various chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere and terrestrial and marine ecosystems
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carbon cycle
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth
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assimilation
Cultural assimilation is the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group
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water cycle
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the H2O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth
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hydrosphere
The hydrosphere is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet
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global warming
Global warming and climate change are terms for the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects
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photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities
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photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities
global warming
Global warming and climate change are terms for the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects
hydrosphere
The hydrosphere is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet
water cycle
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the H2O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth
assimilation
Cultural assimilation is the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group
carbon cycle
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth
nitrogen cycle
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into various chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere and terrestrial and marine ecosystems
faults
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock mass movement
weathering
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, waters and biological organisms
body fossil
Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past
air
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity
greenhouse gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range
overharvesting
Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns
Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth
hydrogen
Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1
chemical changes
Chemical changes occur when a substance combines with another to form a new substance, called synthesis or, alternatively, decomposes into two or more different substances
rock cycle
The rock cycle is a basic concept in geology that describes the time-consuming transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous
hot spots
In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle
lithosphere
A lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties
ozone layer
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation
igneous rock
Igneous rock is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic
erosion
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, then transport it away to another location

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