Flashcards - Evolution: Theories and Principles

Flashcards - Evolution: Theories and Principles
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Population genetics
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology
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heritability of acquired characteristics
The inheritance of acquired characteristics is a hypothesis that physiological changes acquired over the life of an organism may be transmitted to offspring
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zygote
A zygote , is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes
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species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank
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speciation
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which reproductively isolated biological populations evolve to become distinct species
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polyploidy
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired sets of chromosomes
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evolution
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations
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evolution
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations
polyploidy
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired sets of chromosomes
speciation
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which reproductively isolated biological populations evolve to become distinct species
species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank
zygote
A zygote , is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes
heritability of acquired characteristics
The inheritance of acquired characteristics is a hypothesis that physiological changes acquired over the life of an organism may be transmitted to offspring
Population genetics
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology
convergent evolution
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages
homologous
In the context of biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa
stabilizing selection
Stabilizing selection is a type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases and the population mean stabilizes on a particular trait value
Low hybrid viability
Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck , often known simply as Lamarck , was a French naturalist
gene pool
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species
Disruptive selection
Disruptive selection, also called diversifying selection, describes changes in population genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values
sympatric speciation
Sympatric speciation is the process through which new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region

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