# Flashcards - FTCE Middle Grades Math: Mathematical Reasoning

Flashcards - FTCE Middle Grades Math: Mathematical Reasoning
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truth value
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth
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propositions
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary philosophy
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deductive
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements to reach a logically certain conclusion
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hypothesis
A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon
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disjunction
In logic and mathematics, or is the truth-functional operator of disjunction, also known as alternation; the or of a set of operands is true if and only if one or more of its operands is true
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conjunction
In grammar, a conjunction is a part of speech that connects words, sentences, phrases, or clauses
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logic
Logic , originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken" , is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments
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logic
Logic , originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken" , is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments
conjunction
In grammar, a conjunction is a part of speech that connects words, sentences, phrases, or clauses
disjunction
In logic and mathematics, or is the truth-functional operator of disjunction, also known as alternation; the or of a set of operands is true if and only if one or more of its operands is true
hypothesis
A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon
deductive
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements to reach a logically certain conclusion
propositions
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary philosophy
truth value
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth
counterexample
In logic, and especially in its applications to mathematics and philosophy, a counterexample is an exception to a proposed general rule or law
In classical logic, a contradiction consists of a logical incompatibility between two or more propositions
In logic, proof by contradiction is a form of proof, and more specifically a form of indirect proof, that establishes the truth or validity of a proposition
If and only if
Logical symbols representing iff In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if is a biconditional logical connective between statements
negation
In logic, negation, also called logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition p to another proposition "not p", written ¬p, which is interpreted intuitively as being true when p is false and false when p is true
truth table
A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic-specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus-which sets out the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments, that is, for each combination of values taken by their logical variables
contrapositive
In logic, contraposition is a law that says that a conditional statement is logically equivalent to its contrapositive
direct proof
In mathematics and logic, a direct proof is a way of showing thetruth or falsehood of a given statement by a straightforward combination ofestablished facts, usually axioms, existing lemmas and theorems, without making any further assumptions

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