Flashcards - Human Anatomy & Physiology Overview

Flashcards - Human Anatomy & Physiology Overview
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55 cards in set
cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium
A contract is a voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable at law as a binding legal agreement
smooth muscle
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle
The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells
blood vessels
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body
pulmonary circuit
Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars
large intestine
The large intestine, or the large bowel, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates
Intestinal villi are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates
The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals
central nervous system
The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
A reflex action, differently known as a reflex, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus
sensory neurons
Sensory neurons are nerve that transmit sensory information
The cerebellum is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control
The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions
cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex is the cerebrum's outer layer of neural tissue in humans and other mammals
temporal lobe
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals
adrenal glands
The adrenal glands are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol
The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs in the female as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system
pituitary gland
In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0
The testicle is the male gonad in animals
seminiferous tubules
Seminiferous tubules are located within the testes, and are the specific location of meiosis, and the subsequent creation of male gametes, namely spermatozoa
Ovulation is the release of egg from the ovaries
The egg cell, or ovum, is the female reproductive cell in oogamous organisms
Osteoporosis is a disease where decreased bone strength increases the risk of a broken bone
stem cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide to produce more stem cells
The esophagus or oesophagus , commonly known as the food pipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach
hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride in water
In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of fluids from the body
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a sensory receptor that transduces a chemical signal into an action potential
The hippocampus is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates
The thalamus is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain
parietal lobe
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain
The epidermis is the outer of the two layers that make up the skin , the inner layer being the dermis
The subcutaneous tissue , also called the hypodermis, hypoderm , subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates
endocrine glands
Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct
pineal gland
The pineal gland, also known as the pineal body, conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid /ˈθaɪrɔɪd/, is an endocrine gland in the throat, and consists of two connected lobes
renal hilum
The renal hilum or renal pedicle is the hilum of the kidney, that is, its recessed central fissure where its vessels, nerves and ureter pass
renal papilla
The renal papilla is the location where the renal pyramids in the medulla empty urine into the minor calyx in the kidney
renal pyramids
Renal pyramids are cone-shaped tissues of the kidney
The acrosome is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the spermatozoa of many animals
Osteoblast are cells with a single nucleus that synthesize bone
An osteoclast is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue
Pepsin is an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein
A zymogen , also called a proenzyme , is an inactive precursor of an enzyme
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuron found in the retina that is capable of phototransduction
autonomic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs
brain stem
The brainstem is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord
olfactory bulbs
The olfactory bulb is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, or the sense of smell
A flagellum is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

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