Flashcards - Human Anatomy

Flashcards - Human Anatomy
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smooth muscle
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle
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contract

When muscles contract they get shorter and pull whatever they are attached to closer together.

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cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium
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skin
Skin is the soft outer covering of vertebrates
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keratin

Keratin is a structural protein found in the epidermis of the skin. It is what hair and nails are made of.

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integumentary system
The integumentary system is the organ system that protects the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside
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diaphragm
In human anatomy, the thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm , is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity
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biceps
In human anatomy, the biceps brachii , commonly known as the biceps, is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow
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skeletal muscles

Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control and is involved in moving the skeletal system.

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Muscles

Muscle is a soft tissue that controls movement in the body and includes skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, smooth and cardiac muscles are under autonomic control.

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Troponin
Troponin is a complex of three regulatory proteins that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle
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upper limbs
The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in an animal extending from the deltoid region to the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder
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ulna
The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm
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tarsals
In tetrapods, the tarsus is a cluster of seven articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus
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pectoral girdles
The shoulder girdle or pectoral girdle is the set of bones which connects the arm to the axial skeleton on each side
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metatarsals
The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes
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humerus
The humerus is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow
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carpal bones
The carpal bones are the eight small bones that make up the wrist that connects the hand to the forearm
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appendicular skeleton
The appendicular skeleton is the portion of the skeleton of vertebrates consisting of the bones or cartilage that support the appendages
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axial skeleton
The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate
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axial skeleton
The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate
appendicular skeleton
The appendicular skeleton is the portion of the skeleton of vertebrates consisting of the bones or cartilage that support the appendages
carpal bones
The carpal bones are the eight small bones that make up the wrist that connects the hand to the forearm
humerus
The humerus is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow
metatarsals
The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes
pectoral girdles
The shoulder girdle or pectoral girdle is the set of bones which connects the arm to the axial skeleton on each side
tarsals
In tetrapods, the tarsus is a cluster of seven articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus
ulna
The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm
upper limbs
The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in an animal extending from the deltoid region to the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder
Troponin
Troponin is a complex of three regulatory proteins that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle
Muscles

Muscle is a soft tissue that controls movement in the body and includes skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, smooth and cardiac muscles are under autonomic control.

skeletal muscles

Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control and is involved in moving the skeletal system.

biceps
In human anatomy, the biceps brachii , commonly known as the biceps, is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow
diaphragm
In human anatomy, the thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm , is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity
integumentary system
The integumentary system is the organ system that protects the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside
keratin

Keratin is a structural protein found in the epidermis of the skin. It is what hair and nails are made of.

skin
Skin is the soft outer covering of vertebrates
cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium
contract

When muscles contract they get shorter and pull whatever they are attached to closer together.

smooth muscle
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle
sensory neurons

Sensory neurons are nerves that transmit sensory information to the brain. This includes things such as taste, touch, sound, and hot and cold.

axons
An axon , is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body
dendrites

Dendrites are extensions of neurons that receive signals and conduct them toward the cell body.

neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters, also known as chemical messengers, are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission
synapse
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron
central nervous system
The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
reflexes
A reflex action, differently known as a reflex, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus
sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system
cerebellum
The cerebellum is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control
hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions
cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest part of the human brain that surrounds most of the other brain structures. It is responsible for a variety of functions and many complex thinking processes.

temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is the lobe in the lower central part of the cerebral cortex and appears to be important for memory, hearing and language comprehension.

pharynx
The pharynx is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the oesophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs
cnidarians
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic environments: they are predominantly marine species
gastrovascular cavity
The gastrovascular cavity is the primary organ of digestion and circulation in two major animal phyla: the Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes
angiogenesis
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels
capillaries
Capillaries are the smallest of a body's blood vessels that make up the microcirculation
lymph
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system
lymph nodes
A lymph node is an oval- or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, present widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels
pulmonary veins
The pulmonary veins are large blood vessels that receive oxygenated blood from the lungs and drain into the left atrium of the heart
pulmonary circuit
Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart
organ

An organ is a structure composed of several different tissues that work together to perform certain tasks.

organ system
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities
villi
Intestinal villi are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine
connective tissue
Connective tissue is one of the four types of biological tissue that supports, connects or separates different types of tissues and organs in the body
extracellular matrix
In biology, the extracellular matrix is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells
amylase
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars
large intestine
The large intestine, or the large bowel, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates
kidneys

The kidneys are fist-sized organs that filter waste products out of the blood and help regulate blood composition and blood pressure.

liver

Detoxifying and modifying dangerous substances so that they can be quickly and easily removed from the body as well as filtering the blood that comes from the digestive tract before it is sent to the rest of the body are some of the many jobs of the human liver.

pathogens
In biology, a pathogen in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s
lymphocytes
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system
Homeostasis
Homeostasis or homoeostasis is the property of a system in which a variable is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant
edema
Edema or oedema is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain
lymphatic vessels
In anatomy, lymphatic vessels or lymph vessels are thin walled, valved structures that carry lymph
calcaneal tendon
The Achilles tendon or heel cord, also known as the calcaneal tendon , is a tendon of the back of the leg, and the thickest in the human body
Hair
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis, or skin
sternocleidomastoid
In human anatomy, the sternocleidomastoid muscle , also known as sternomastoid and commonly abbreviated as SCM, is a paired muscle in the superficial layers of the side of the neck
vertebral column
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton
dermis
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain
epidermis
The epidermis is the outer of the two layers that make up the skin , the inner layer being the dermis
hypodermis
The subcutaneous tissue , also called the hypodermis, hypoderm , subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates
melanin

Melanin is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms

Chemoreceptors
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a sensory receptor that transduces a chemical signal into an action potential
parasympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous system is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the sympathetic nervous system. It relaxes the body and inhibits or slows many high energy functions. The effects of the parasympathetic nervous system can be summarized by the phrase 'rest and digest'.

hippocampus

The hippocampus is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. It is critical for the formation of new memories and spatial orientation.

thalamus

The thalamus is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It is the relay station for sensory information to the cerebral cortex.

parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex and is important for motor function, and integrating senses like pain, touch, and temperature.

ventricle
In the heart, a ventricle is one of two large chambers that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs
organism
In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, archaeon, or bacterium
esophagus
The esophagus or oesophagus , commonly known as the food pipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach
hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride in water
urethra
In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of fluids from the body
gluteal group
The gluteal muscles are a group of three muscles which make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus
hair follicle
A hair follicle is a mammalian skin organ that produces hair
root hair plexus
A hair plexus or root hair plexus is a special group of nerve fiber endings and serves as a very sensitive mechanoreceptor for touch sensation
nails
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in humans, most non-human primates, and a few other mammals
sebaceous glands
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals
agonist
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response
antagonist
An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution, or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist must contend
autonomic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs
photoreceptors
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuron found in the retina that is capable of phototransduction
brain stem

The brainstem connects the brain with the spinal cord and regulates heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, and digestion.

olfactory bulbs
The olfactory bulb is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, or the sense of smell
larynx

The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration

aorta
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries
veins
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart
gills
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide
pepsin
Pepsin is an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides
fats
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein
zymogens
A zymogen , also called a proenzyme , is an inactive precursor of an enzyme
antigen-presenting cells
An antigen-presenting cell or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation
lymphatic capillaries
Lymph capillaries or lymphatic capillaries are tiny, thin-walled vessels located in the spaces between cells which serve to drain and process extra-cellular fluid
thoracic duct
In human anatomy, the thoracic duct is the largest lymphatic vessel of the lymphatic system
hamstrings
In human anatomy, a hamstring is one of the three posterior thigh muscles
cuticle

A cuticle or cuticula is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection

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