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Flashcards - Physiology I: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems

Flashcards - Physiology I: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
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liver
The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals
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kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates
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villi
Intestinal villi are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine
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large intestine
The large intestine, or the large bowel, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates
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amylase
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars
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pulmonary circuit
Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart
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pulmonary veins
The pulmonary veins are large blood vessels that receive oxygenated blood from the lungs and drain into the left atrium of the heart
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lymph nodes
A lymph node is an oval- or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, present widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels
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lymph
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system
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capillaries
Capillaries are the smallest of a body's blood vessels that make up the microcirculation
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angiogenesis
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels
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gastrovascular cavity
The gastrovascular cavity is the primary organ of digestion and circulation in two major animal phyla: the Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes
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cnidarians
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic environments: they are predominantly marine species
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pharynx
The pharynx is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the oesophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs
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ulna
The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm
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smooth muscle
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle
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contract
A contract is a voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable at law as a binding legal agreement
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cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium
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cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium
contract
A contract is a voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable at law as a binding legal agreement
smooth muscle
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle
ulna
The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm
pharynx
The pharynx is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the oesophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs
cnidarians
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic environments: they are predominantly marine species
gastrovascular cavity
The gastrovascular cavity is the primary organ of digestion and circulation in two major animal phyla: the Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes
angiogenesis
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels
capillaries
Capillaries are the smallest of a body's blood vessels that make up the microcirculation
lymph
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system
lymph nodes
A lymph node is an oval- or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, present widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels
pulmonary veins
The pulmonary veins are large blood vessels that receive oxygenated blood from the lungs and drain into the left atrium of the heart
pulmonary circuit
Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart
amylase
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars
large intestine
The large intestine, or the large bowel, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates
villi
Intestinal villi are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine
kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates
liver
The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals
organ
In music, the organ is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals
organ system
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities
connective tissue
Connective tissue is one of the four types of biological tissue that supports, connects or separates different types of tissues and organs in the body
extracellular matrix
In biology, the extracellular matrix is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells
herbivores
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet
heterotrophs
A heterotroph is an organism that cannot fix carbon and uses organic carbon for growth
ventricle
In the heart, a ventricle is one of two large chambers that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs
esophagus
The esophagus or oesophagus , commonly known as the food pipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach
hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride in water
urethra
In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of fluids from the body
organism
In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, archaeon, or bacterium
detritivores
Detritivores, also known as detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus
larynx
The larynx /ˈlærɪŋks/ , commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration
aorta
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries
veins
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart
gills
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide
pepsin
Pepsin is an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides
fats
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein
zymogens
A zymogen , also called a proenzyme , is an inactive precursor of an enzyme

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