Flashcards - Physiology II: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems

Flashcards - Physiology II: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
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reverse transcriptase
A reverse transcriptase is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription
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antibiotic
Antibiotics, also called antibacterials, are a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections
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sensory neurons
Sensory neurons are nerve that transmit sensory information
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glycogen
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi
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Glucose
Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6
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Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus , commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period
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Homeostasis
Homeostasis or homoeostasis is the property of a system in which a variable is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant
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lymphocytes
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system
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pathogens
In biology, a pathogen in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s
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temporal lobe
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals
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cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex is the cerebrum's outer layer of neural tissue in humans and other mammals
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hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions
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cerebellum
The cerebellum is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control
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sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system
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reflexes
A reflex action, differently known as a reflex, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus
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central nervous system
The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
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synapse
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron
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neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters, also known as chemical messengers, are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission
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dendrites
A crystal dendrite is a crystal that develops with a typical multi-branching tree-like form
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axons
An axon , is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body
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axons
An axon , is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body
dendrites
A crystal dendrite is a crystal that develops with a typical multi-branching tree-like form
neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters, also known as chemical messengers, are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission
synapse
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron
central nervous system
The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
reflexes
A reflex action, differently known as a reflex, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus
sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system
cerebellum
The cerebellum is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control
hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions
cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex is the cerebrum's outer layer of neural tissue in humans and other mammals
temporal lobe
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals
pathogens
In biology, a pathogen in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s
lymphocytes
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system
Homeostasis
Homeostasis or homoeostasis is the property of a system in which a variable is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant
Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus , commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period
Glucose
Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6
glycogen
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi
sensory neurons
Sensory neurons are nerve that transmit sensory information
antibiotic
Antibiotics, also called antibacterials, are a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections
reverse transcriptase
A reverse transcriptase is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription
antibiotic resistance
Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication previously used to treat them
endocrine system
The endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs
pituitary gland
In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0
Chemoreceptors
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a sensory receptor that transduces a chemical signal into an action potential
parasympathetic nervous system
The parasympathetic nervous system is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the sympathetic nervous system
hippocampus
The hippocampus is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates
thalamus
The thalamus is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain
parietal lobe
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals
germ theory of disease
The germ theory of disease states that some diseases are caused by microorganisms
vaccine
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease
provirus
A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell
virus
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms
Anabolic steroids
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic-androgenic steroids , are steroidal androgens that are structurally related to and have similar effects as testosterone in the body
Glands
A gland is an organ in an animal's body that synthesizes substances for release into the bloodstream or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface
photoreceptors
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuron found in the retina that is capable of phototransduction
brain stem
The brainstem is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord
olfactory bulbs
The olfactory bulb is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, or the sense of smell
antigen-presenting cells
An antigen-presenting cell or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation
Type I diabetes
Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced
autonomic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs
genetic reassortment
Reassortment is the mixing of the genetic material of a species into new combinations in different individuals

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