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Flashcards - Praxis Middle School Science: Plant Structures & Functions

Flashcards - Praxis Middle School Science: Plant Structures & Functions
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monocot
Monocotyledons , commonly referred to as monocots, are flowering plants whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon
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photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities
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zygote
A zygote , is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes
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mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei
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gametophyte
A gametophyte is a stage in the life cycle of plants and algae that undergo alternation of generations
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gametes
A gamete is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce
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paraphyletic
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few-typically only one or two-monophyletic subgroups
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stamen
The stamen is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower
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biotic
Biotic components are the living things that shape an ecosystem
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Nitrogen fixation
Nitrogen fixation is a process in which nitrogen in the atmosphere is converted into ammonia
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mutualism
Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other
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root cap
The root cap is a section of tissue at the tip of a plant root
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xylem
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other
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vascular tissue
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants
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Plants
Plants, also called green plants, are multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae
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cell wall
A cell wall is a structural layer that surrounds most types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane
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cell wall
A cell wall is a structural layer that surrounds most types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane
Plants
Plants, also called green plants, are multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae
vascular tissue
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants
xylem
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other
root cap
The root cap is a section of tissue at the tip of a plant root
mutualism
Mutualism is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other
Nitrogen fixation
Nitrogen fixation is a process in which nitrogen in the atmosphere is converted into ammonia
biotic
Biotic components are the living things that shape an ecosystem
stamen
The stamen is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower
paraphyletic
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few-typically only one or two-monophyletic subgroups
gametes
A gamete is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce
gametophyte
A gametophyte is a stage in the life cycle of plants and algae that undergo alternation of generations
mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei
zygote
A zygote , is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities
monocot
Monocotyledons , commonly referred to as monocots, are flowering plants whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon
meristems
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells , found in zones of the plant where growth can take place
epidermis
The epidermis is the outer of the two layers that make up the skin , the inner layer being the dermis
zone of elongation
In astronomy, a planet's elongation is the angle between the Sun and the planet, with Earth as the reference point
pressure flow hypothesis
The Pressure Flow Hypothesis, also known as the Mass Flow Hypothesis, is the best-supported theory to explain the movement of sap through the phloem
Fertilization
Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube
clade
A clade is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life"
cladograms
A cladogram is a diagram used in cladistics which shows relations among organisms
alternation of generations
Alternation of generations is a term primarily used to describe the life cycle of plants
sporophyte
A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga
geotropism
Gravitropism is a turning or growth movement by a plant or fungus in response to gravity
phototropism
Phototropism is the growth of an organism which responds to a light stimulus
thigmatropism
Thigmotropism is a directional growth movement of curvature which occurs in response to stimulus of contact
tropism
A tropism is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus
dicot
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots , were one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided
Shoot
In botany, shoots consist of stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds
cuticle
A cuticle /ˈkjuË?tɪkÉ™l/, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection
Ethylene
Ethylene is a hydrocarbon which has the formula C2H4 or H2C=CH2

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