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Flashcards - Praxis Middle School Science: Biochemistry

Flashcards - Praxis Middle School Science: Biochemistry
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pyruvate
Pyruvic acid is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group
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oxidative phosphorylation
Oxidative phosphorylation is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to reform ATP
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competitive inhibition
Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of the inhibitor to the active site on the enzyme prevents binding of the substrate and vice versa
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substrate
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with reagent to generate a product
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Cofactors
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for a protein's biological activity to happen
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Proteins
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues
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amino acids
Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine and carboxylic acid functional groups, along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid
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saturated
A saturated fat is a type of fat, in which the fatty acids all have single bonds
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glycogen
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi
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Glucose
Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6
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tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
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messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
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nucleotide
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA
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anaerobic cellular respiration
Anaerobic respiration is a form of respiration using electron acceptors other than oxygen
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anaerobic cellular respiration
Anaerobic respiration is a form of respiration using electron acceptors other than oxygen
nucleotide
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA
messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
Glucose
Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6
glycogen
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi
saturated
A saturated fat is a type of fat, in which the fatty acids all have single bonds
amino acids
Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine and carboxylic acid functional groups, along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid
Proteins
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues
Cofactors
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for a protein's biological activity to happen
substrate
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with reagent to generate a product
competitive inhibition
Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of the inhibitor to the active site on the enzyme prevents binding of the substrate and vice versa
oxidative phosphorylation
Oxidative phosphorylation is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to reform ATP
pyruvate
Pyruvic acid is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group
phosphodiester bond
A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds
polynucleotide
A polynucleotide molecule is a biopolymer composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain
base pairs
A base pair is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds
double-helix
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA
ribonucleic acid
Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes
monosaccharides
Monosaccharides , also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates
primary structure
The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure
secondary structure
In biochemistry and structural biology, protein secondary structure is the general three-dimensional form of local segments of proteins
ATP synthase
ATP synthase is an important enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate
pyrimidines
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine
James Watson
James Dewey Watson is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick
disaccharides
A disaccharide is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined
peptide
Peptides are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds
polymerization
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks

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