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Flashcards - Praxis Middle School Science: Cell Biology

Flashcards - Praxis Middle School Science: Cell Biology
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translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
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ribosome
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis
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endocytosis
Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules into the cell by engulfing them in an energy-using process
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Proteins
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues
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tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
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nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells
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nucleolus
The nucleolus is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly
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chromatin
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA
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mitochondria
The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms, although some cells in some organisms may lack them
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prokaryotes
A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus , mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle
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prokaryotes
A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus , mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle
mitochondria
The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms, although some cells in some organisms may lack them
chromatin
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA
nucleolus
The nucleolus is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly
nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells
tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
Proteins
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues
endocytosis
Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules into the cell by engulfing them in an energy-using process
ribosome
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis
translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
Intermediate filaments
Intermediate filaments are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of vertebrate animal species, and perhaps also in other animals, fungi, plants, and unicellular organisms
transduction
Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector
fluid mosaic model
The Fluid Mosaic Model explains various observations regarding the structure of functional cell membranes
active and passive transport work
Passive transport is a movement of biochemicals and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input
endomembrane system
The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell
nuclear pores
Nuclear pores are large protein complexes that cross the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus
replication
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule
facilitated diffusion
Facilitated diffusion is the process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a cell's membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins
lysosome
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in most animal cells
Golgi apparatus
The Golgi apparatus , also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells
Microtubules
Microtubules are a component of the cytoskeleton, found throughout the cytoplasm

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