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Flashcards - Praxis Middle School Science: Human Body Systems

Flashcards - Praxis Middle School Science: Human Body Systems
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nervous system
The nervous system is the part of an animal's body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body
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central nervous system
The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
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liver
The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals
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kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates
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small intestine
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the digestion and absorption of food takes place
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large intestine
The large intestine, or the large bowel, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates
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pharynx
The pharynx is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the oesophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs
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pulmonary circuit
Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart
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blood vessels
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body
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blood
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells
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symmetry
Symmetry in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance
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ulna
The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm
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smooth muscle
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle
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contract
A contract is a voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable at law as a binding legal agreement
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cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium
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extracellular matrix
In biology, the extracellular matrix is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells
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connective tissue
Connective tissue is one of the four types of biological tissue that supports, connects or separates different types of tissues and organs in the body
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villi
Intestinal villi are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine
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organ system
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities
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organ
In music, the organ is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals
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organ
In music, the organ is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals
organ system
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities
villi
Intestinal villi are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine
connective tissue
Connective tissue is one of the four types of biological tissue that supports, connects or separates different types of tissues and organs in the body
extracellular matrix
In biology, the extracellular matrix is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells
cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium
contract
A contract is a voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable at law as a binding legal agreement
smooth muscle
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle
ulna
The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm
symmetry
Symmetry in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance
blood
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells
blood vessels
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body
pulmonary circuit
Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart
pharynx
The pharynx is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the oesophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs
large intestine
The large intestine, or the large bowel, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates
small intestine
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the digestion and absorption of food takes place
kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates
liver
The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals
central nervous system
The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
nervous system
The nervous system is the part of an animal's body that coordinates its actions and transmits signals to and from different parts of its body
sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system
axons
An axon , is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body
dendrites
A crystal dendrite is a crystal that develops with a typical multi-branching tree-like form
neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters, also known as chemical messengers, are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission
synapse
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron
Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus , commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period
endocrine system
The endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs
Homeostasis
Homeostasis or homoeostasis is the property of a system in which a variable is actively regulated to remain very nearly constant
hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions
brainstem
The brainstem is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord
cerebellum
The cerebellum is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control
cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex is the cerebrum's outer layer of neural tissue in humans and other mammals
medulla
The medulla oblongata is located in the hindbrain, anterior to the cerebellum
immune system
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease
lymph
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system
lymphocytes
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system
antibiotics
Antibiotics, also called antibacterials, are a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections
pathogens
In biology, a pathogen in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s
viruses
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms
organism
In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, archaeon, or bacterium
body plan
A body plan , Bauplan , or ground plan is "an assemblage of morphological features shared among many members of a phylum-level group"
deuterostomes
Deuterostomes are any members of a superphylum of animals
gastrointestinal tract
Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines
urethra
In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of fluids from the body
parasympathetic nervous system
The parasympathetic nervous system is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the sympathetic nervous system
amygdala
The amygdalae are two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans
dopamine pathways
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are neural pathways in the brain that transmit the neurotransmitter dopamine from one region of the brain to another
pons
The pons is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata and in front of the cerebellum
thalamus
The thalamus is a midline symmetrical structure of two halves, within the vertebrate brain, situated between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain
vaccine
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease
coelom
The coelom refers to the main body cavity in most multicellular animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs
larynx
The larynx /ˈlærɪŋks/ , commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration
autonomic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs
hindbrain
The hindbrain or rhombencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates
midbrain
The midbrain or mesencephalon is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal , and temperature regulation

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