Flashcards - Reproduction, Genetics & Evolution

Flashcards - Reproduction, Genetics & Evolution
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genotype
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic of that cell/organism/individual
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dominant trait
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus
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Human reproduction
Human reproduction is any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization, typically involving sexual intercourse between a man and a woman
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fetus
In human development, a fetus or foetus is a prenatal human between the embryonic state and birth
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endometrium
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus
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embryo
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism
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zygote
A zygote , is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes
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mesoderm
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo
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endoderm
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early human embryo
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ectoderm
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo
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stigma
Social stigma refers to extreme disapproval of a person or group on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived, and serve to distinguish them, from other members of a society
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stamen
The stamen is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower
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Petals
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers
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angiosperm
The flowering plants , also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approx
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angiosperm
The flowering plants , also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approx
Petals
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers
stamen
The stamen is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower
stigma
Social stigma refers to extreme disapproval of a person or group on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived, and serve to distinguish them, from other members of a society
ectoderm
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo
endoderm
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early human embryo
mesoderm
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo
zygote
A zygote , is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes
embryo
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism
endometrium
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus
fetus
In human development, a fetus or foetus is a prenatal human between the embryonic state and birth
Human reproduction
Human reproduction is any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization, typically involving sexual intercourse between a man and a woman
dominant trait
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus
genotype
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic of that cell/organism/individual
Punnett square
The Punnett square is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
speciation
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which reproductively isolated biological populations evolve to become distinct species
alternation of generations
Alternation of generations is a term primarily used to describe the life cycle of plants
microsporangia
A microsporangium is a sporangium that produces spores that give rise to male gametophytes
instinct
Instinct or innate behavior is the inherent inclination of a living organism towards a particular complex behavior
convergent evolution
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages
homologous
In the context of biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa
Coevolution
In biology, coevolution occurs when changes in species' genetic compositions reciprocally affect each other’s evolution
gradualism
Gradualism, from Latin gradus , is a hypothesis, a theory or a tenet assuming that change comes about gradually or that variation is gradual in nature
Parallel evolution
Parallel evolution is the development of a similar trait in related, but distinct, species descending from the same ancestor, but from different clades
therapsids
Therapsida is a group of synapsids that includes mammals and their ancestors
ovary
The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive organ, often found in pairs in the female as part of the vertebrate female reproductive system
pollen grains
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes
organogenesis
In animal development, organogenesis is the process by which the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm develop into the internal organs of the organism
Australopithecus
Australopithecus is an extinct genus of hominins

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