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Flashcards - Structure, Function & Sensory Reception in the Nervous System for the MCAT: Help and Review

Flashcards - Structure, Function & Sensory Reception in the Nervous System for the MCAT: Help and Review
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ossicles
The ossicles are three bones in either middle ear that are among the smallest bones in the human body
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eardrum
In human anatomy, the eardrum, or tympanic membrane, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear in humans and other tetrapods
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ear canal
The ear canal , is a tube running from the outer ear to the middle ear
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Cranial nerve III
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve
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optic nerve
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain
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fovea
The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye
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olfactory nerve
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I
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olfactory bulbs
The olfactory bulb is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, or the sense of smell
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positive feedback
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation
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muscle spindle
Muscle spindles are sensory receptors within the belly of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of this muscle
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photoreceptors
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuron found in the retina that is capable of phototransduction
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photoreceptors
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuron found in the retina that is capable of phototransduction
muscle spindle
Muscle spindles are sensory receptors within the belly of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of this muscle
positive feedback
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation
olfactory bulbs
The olfactory bulb is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, or the sense of smell
olfactory nerve
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I
fovea
The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye
optic nerve
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain
Cranial nerve III
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve
ear canal
The ear canal , is a tube running from the outer ear to the middle ear
eardrum
In human anatomy, the eardrum, or tympanic membrane, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear in humans and other tetrapods
ossicles
The ossicles are three bones in either middle ear that are among the smallest bones in the human body
oval window
The oval window is a membrane-covered opening that leads from the middle ear to the vestibule of the inner ear
bony labyrinth
The bony labyrinth is the rigid, bony outer wall of the inner ear in the temporal bone
inner ear
The inner ear is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear
semicircular canals
The semicircular canals or semicircular ducts are three semicircular, interconnected tubes located in the innermost part of each ear, the inner ear
auditory nerve
The cochlear nerve is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve present in amniotes
hair cells
Hair cells are the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in the ears of all vertebrates
cranial nerve IX
The glossopharyngeal nerve, known as the ninth cranial nerve , is a mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and efferent motor information
cranial nerve VII
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply cranial nerve VII
hypoglossal nerve
The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, except for the palatoglossus
trigeminal nerve
The trigeminal nerve is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing
accessory nerve
The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve that controls the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
vagus nerve
The vagus nerve , historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs and digestive tract

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