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Flashcards - Structure & Function of Cells & Organelles

Flashcards - Structure & Function of Cells & Organelles
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translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
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transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
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prokaryotes
A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus , mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle
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DNA replication
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule
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cell wall
A cell wall is a structural layer that surrounds most types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane
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organ system
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities
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nucleolus
The nucleolus is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly
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chromosomes
A chromosome is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism
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cell membrane
The cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment
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cell

The basic unit of an organism.

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nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells
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mitochondria
The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms, although some cells in some organisms may lack them
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Cytoplasm
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus
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Cytoplasm
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus
mitochondria
The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms, although some cells in some organisms may lack them
nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells
cell

The basic unit of an organism.

cell membrane
The cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment
chromosomes
A chromosome is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism
nucleolus
The nucleolus is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly
organ system
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities
cell wall
A cell wall is a structural layer that surrounds most types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane
DNA replication
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule
prokaryotes
A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus , mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle
transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
cell cycle
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA to produce two daughter cells
interphase
Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life
mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei
fluid mosaic
The Fluid Mosaic Model explains various observations regarding the structure of functional cell membranes
lipid bilayer
The lipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules
eukaryote
A eukaryote is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes
chromatid
A chromatid is one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the other copy by a single centromere
crossing over
Chromosomal crossover is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction
Golgi apparatus
The Golgi apparatus , also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells
hydrophilic
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water
Lysosomes
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in most animal cells
Microtubules
Microtubules are a component of the cytoskeleton, found throughout the cytoplasm
turgor pressure
Turgor pressure pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall of plant, bacteria, and fungus cells as well as those protist cells which have cell walls
organs
In biology, an organ or viscus is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function

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