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Flashcards - TExMaT Master Science Teacher 8-12: Cell Cycle & Division

Flashcards - TExMaT Master Science Teacher 8-12: Cell Cycle & Division
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stem cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide to produce more stem cells
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Trisomy
A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two
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nondisjunction
Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division
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mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei
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interphase
Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life
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cell cycle
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA to produce two daughter cells
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prokaryotes
A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus , mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle
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genome
In modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism
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gametes
A gamete is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce
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chromosomes
A chromosome is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism
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chromosomes
A chromosome is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism
gametes
A gamete is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce
genome
In modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism
prokaryotes
A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus , mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle
cell cycle
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA to produce two daughter cells
interphase
Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life
mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei
nondisjunction
Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division
Trisomy
A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two
stem cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide to produce more stem cells
trophoblast
Trophoblasts are cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta
homologs
In the context of biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa
Chromosome condensation
DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo
karyotype
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
chromatid
A chromatid is one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the other copy by a single centromere
mitotic spindle
In cell biology, the spindle apparatus refers to the cytoskeletal structure of eukaryotic cells that forms during cell division to separate sister chromatids between daughter cells
homologous pairs
A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosomes that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis
Ploidy
Ploidy is the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell
aneuploid
Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46
blastocyst
The blastocyst is a structure formed in the early development of mammals

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