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Flashcards - The Transcription and Translation Process

Flashcards - The Transcription and Translation Process
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gene expression
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product
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tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
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messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
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translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
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transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
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transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
translation
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins
messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
gene expression
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product
operons
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter
repressor
In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers
stop codons
In the genetic code, a stop codon is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins
start codon
The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA transcript translated by a ribosome
structural genes
A structural gene is a gene that codes for any RNA or protein product other than a regulatory factor

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