Flashcards - Understanding Genetics

Flashcards - Understanding Genetics
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Punnett square
The Punnett square is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
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monohybrid cross
A monohybrid cross is a mating between two individuals with different alleles at one genetic locus of interest
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dihybrid cross
Dihybrid cross is a pranit cross between two different lines that differ in two observed traits
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sex chromosomes
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism
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Autosomes
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome
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chromosomes
A chromosome is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism
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genotype
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic of that cell/organism/individual
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dominant trait
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus
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tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
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transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
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messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
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messenger RNA
Messenger RNA is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression
transcription
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
tRNA
A transfer RNA is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins
dominant trait
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus
genotype
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic of that cell/organism/individual
chromosomes
A chromosome is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism
Autosomes
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome
sex chromosomes
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism
dihybrid cross
Dihybrid cross is a pranit cross between two different lines that differ in two observed traits
monohybrid cross
A monohybrid cross is a mating between two individuals with different alleles at one genetic locus of interest
Punnett square
The Punnett square is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
evolution
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations
genetic variations
Genetic variation is a fact that a biological system – individual and population – is different over space
polyploidy
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired sets of chromosomes
mutation
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements
proband
"Proband", "proposito" , or "proposita" is a term used most often in medical genetics and other medical fields to denote a particular subject being studied or reported on
Chromosomal errors
A chromosome anomaly, abnormality, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA
genetic disorder
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth
Hemophilia
Haemophilia also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited, genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding
Tay-Sachs disease
Tay–Sachs disease is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder
Turner syndrome
Turner syndrome also known as 45,X, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome
nucleotides
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA
Down syndrome
Down syndrome , also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all, or part of a third copy of chromosome 21

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