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Flashcards - Weather and Storms

Flashcards - Weather and Storms
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climate
Climate is the statistics of weather, usually over a 30-year interval
Weather
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy
pressure gradient force
The pressure-gradient force is the force which results when there is a difference in pressure across a surface
fronts
A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena
polar front
In meteorology, the polar front is the boundary between the polar cell and the Ferrel cell in each hemisphere
westerlies
The Westerlies, anti-trades, or Prevailing Westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude
Orographic lifting
Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain
cold front
A cold front is defined as the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, replacing at ground level a warmer mass of air, which lies within a fairly sharp surface trough of low pressure
occluded front
An occluded front is formed during the process of cyclogenesis when a cold front overtakes a warm front
stationary front
A stationary front is a pair of air masses, neither of which is strong enough to replace the other
Tornadoes
A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that rotates while in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud
Cyclone
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure
mesocyclone
A mesocyclone is a vortex of air within a convective storm
ENSO cycle
El Niño–Southern Oscillation is an irregularly periodical variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting much of the tropics and subtropics
floods
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry

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