# Fluid Dynamics & Thermodynamics Flashcards

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- 2 and #4 show phase changes. #2 is the phase change between a solid and a liquid and #4 is the phase change between a liquid and a gas.

When a substance changes from one phase to another

Heat energy is added or removed, but the temperature remains the same

Example: when water freezes to ice, the temperature stays at 0°C

Kelvin = °Celsius - 273

Velocity * area of one side = velocity * area of the other side

Decreasing the area leads to an increase in the velocity of fluids in a pipe (like a garden hose)

In an enclosed fluid, the full amount of a change in applied pressure is felt equally by all parts of the fluid and the walls of the container

*F1 / A1* = *F2 / A2*

Pressure = density of liquid * gravity * depth

18,200 Pa = density * 9.8 m/s2 * 2.0 m

Density = 929 kg/m3

Pressure = density of liquid * gravity * depth

Greater depth = greater pressure

Force per unit area (*F* / *A*)

Units: atmospheres (atm), millimeters of mercury (mmHg), torr, pounds per square inch (psi)

15 kg * 1 m3 / 1.5 kg = 10 m3

Buoyant force = density of displaced fluid * volume of displaced fluid * acceleration due to gravity = 1000 kg/m3 * 10 m3 * 9.8 m/s2 = 98,000 N

Buoyant force = density of displaced fluid * volume of displaced fluid * acceleration due to gravity = 1000 kg/m3 * 0.5 m3 * 9.8 m/s2 = 4,900 N

8,000 N - 4,900 N = 3,100 N

A number that shows the ratio between two densities: an object and a reference, usually water (density = 1 g/cm3)

If specific gravity > 1, then the object will sink in water

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## Flashcard Content Overview

Fluid dynamics and thermodynamics are branches of physics that deal with behavior. Fluid dynamics, predictably, looks at the behavior of fluids, while thermodynamics looks at the behavior of heat energy. These flashcards review definitions, equations, and practice problems related to these topics.

A number that shows the ratio between two densities: an object and a reference, usually water (density = 1 g/cm3)

If specific gravity > 1, then the object will sink in water

Buoyant force = density of displaced fluid * volume of displaced fluid * acceleration due to gravity = 1000 kg/m3 * 0.5 m3 * 9.8 m/s2 = 4,900 N

8,000 N - 4,900 N = 3,100 N

15 kg * 1 m3 / 1.5 kg = 10 m3

Buoyant force = density of displaced fluid * volume of displaced fluid * acceleration due to gravity = 1000 kg/m3 * 10 m3 * 9.8 m/s2 = 98,000 N

Force per unit area (*F* / *A*)

Units: atmospheres (atm), millimeters of mercury (mmHg), torr, pounds per square inch (psi)

Pressure = density of liquid * gravity * depth

Greater depth = greater pressure

Pressure = density of liquid * gravity * depth

18,200 Pa = density * 9.8 m/s2 * 2.0 m

Density = 929 kg/m3

In an enclosed fluid, the full amount of a change in applied pressure is felt equally by all parts of the fluid and the walls of the container

*F1 / A1* = *F2 / A2*

Velocity * area of one side = velocity * area of the other side

Decreasing the area leads to an increase in the velocity of fluids in a pipe (like a garden hose)

Kelvin = °Celsius - 273

When a substance changes from one phase to another

Heat energy is added or removed, but the temperature remains the same

Example: when water freezes to ice, the temperature stays at 0°C

- 2 and #4 show phase changes. #2 is the phase change between a solid and a liquid and #4 is the phase change between a liquid and a gas.

A value that represents the amount of heat needed to change 1 kilogram of a specific substance by 1°C

Specific heat = heat energy / (mass of substance * change in temperature)

0.921 J/g°C = heat energy / (2000 g * 45°C)

Heat energy = 82,890 J

Heat = mass * latent heat = 10 g * 334 J/g = 3340 J

The movement of heat energy between two objects in direct contact with one another

The movement of heat energy in a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by the cycling of hot molecules upward and cold molecules downward due to density differences

The movement of heat energy in fluids due to differences in temperature

The movement of heat energy by electromagnetic waves, such as from the Sun

Radiation = Stefan-Boltzmann constant * emissivity * surface area * temperature4 = 5.67 * 10-8 * 0.27 * 8.0 * 10-5 * 28004 = 75.3 J/s = 75.3 watts

Change in length = coefficient of linear expansion * original length * change in temperature = 12 * 10-6/°C * 1 m * 35°C = 0.00042 m = 0.42 mm

Gay-Lussac's Law: when the volume is constant, temperature and pressure of a gas are proportional

As pressure decreases, temperature decreases

As pressure increases, temperature increases

(4.0 atm)(20 L) = (1.5 mol)(0.0821 atm L/mol K)*T*, *T* = 650 K

650 K - 20 K = 630 K

*P*(20 L) = (1.0 mol)(0.0821 atm L/mol K)(630 K)

*P* = 2.6 atm

Δ*P* = 4.0 - 2.6 = 1.4 atm

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