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FTCE Cells & Organ Systems Flashcards

FTCE Cells & Organ Systems Flashcards
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Chloroplast
This is the organelle found in only plant cells that supports the process of photosynthesis. There can be hundreds of chloroplasts in one cell.
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Cell wall
This is a feature found only in plant cells. It surrounds the cell membrane and serves as a support for the structure of plant cells, creating a defined shape.
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Eukaryotes
A type of cell with characteristics like having a nucleus, a plasma membrane that is semi-permeable, and cytoplasm that contains a variety of organelles. Plant and animal cells are eukaryotic.
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Autotrophs
An organism that can use the sun's energy to create food. Plants are an example of an autotroph.
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Heterotroph
An organism that does not produce its own energy but relies on nutrition from other sources, like food. Humans are an example of heterotrophs.
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Name the part of the cell seen here.
This is the nucleus.
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Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Also known as the smooth ER, this is the organelle responsible for making lipids (fats) phospholipids, and steroids. It also serves as a purification area for cells.
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Golgi apparatus
This is the part of a cell that receives proteins, unpacks, and modifies them before sending them to their destination.
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Ribosomes
The part of a cell that where proteins are created.
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Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Also known as the rough ER, these are bumpy membranes. They work with ribosomes to transport proteins.
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Mitochondria
An organelle that produces energy for a cell. The primary form of energy produced is ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
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Cytoplasm
A liquid substance inside a cell with a gel-like consistency. In this substance is where most of the cell's functions are completed through organelles.
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DNA
This stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. This is the material that holds all of an organism's genetic information.
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Nucleus
The area of a cell that holds the DNA for that organism.
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Plasma membrane or cell membrane
This is the part of a human cell that serves as a protective barrier. It is selectively permeable, meaning it does not let in harmful substances while still allowing molecules like oxygen free entry.
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Spontaneous generation
An old, outdated belief that life could come from nonliving things. An example of this obsolete idea was the belief that that dust created fleas or that old bread created mice.
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Name the three assumptions of cell theory.
The three assumptions are that all organisms are made up of cells, cells are the basic units of life, and all cells come from other cells.
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Cells
These are the most basic unit of life found in organisms.
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37 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

From the most basic amoeba to the intricacies of the human body, living organisms are quite complex! This set of flashcards will compare and contrast both plants and animal cells, providing definitions and functions of the many aspects of a cell. Additionally, this set will examine the body's organ systems, their components, and functions.

Front
Back
Cells
These are the most basic unit of life found in organisms.
Name the three assumptions of cell theory.
The three assumptions are that all organisms are made up of cells, cells are the basic units of life, and all cells come from other cells.
Spontaneous generation
An old, outdated belief that life could come from nonliving things. An example of this obsolete idea was the belief that that dust created fleas or that old bread created mice.
Plasma membrane or cell membrane
This is the part of a human cell that serves as a protective barrier. It is selectively permeable, meaning it does not let in harmful substances while still allowing molecules like oxygen free entry.
Nucleus
The area of a cell that holds the DNA for that organism.
DNA
This stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. This is the material that holds all of an organism's genetic information.
Cytoplasm
A liquid substance inside a cell with a gel-like consistency. In this substance is where most of the cell's functions are completed through organelles.
Mitochondria
An organelle that produces energy for a cell. The primary form of energy produced is ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Also known as the rough ER, these are bumpy membranes. They work with ribosomes to transport proteins.
Ribosomes
The part of a cell that where proteins are created.
Golgi apparatus
This is the part of a cell that receives proteins, unpacks, and modifies them before sending them to their destination.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Also known as the smooth ER, this is the organelle responsible for making lipids (fats) phospholipids, and steroids. It also serves as a purification area for cells.
Name the part of the cell seen here.
This is the nucleus.
Heterotroph
An organism that does not produce its own energy but relies on nutrition from other sources, like food. Humans are an example of heterotrophs.
Autotrophs
An organism that can use the sun's energy to create food. Plants are an example of an autotroph.
Eukaryotes
A type of cell with characteristics like having a nucleus, a plasma membrane that is semi-permeable, and cytoplasm that contains a variety of organelles. Plant and animal cells are eukaryotic.
Cell wall
This is a feature found only in plant cells. It surrounds the cell membrane and serves as a support for the structure of plant cells, creating a defined shape.
Chloroplast
This is the organelle found in only plant cells that supports the process of photosynthesis. There can be hundreds of chloroplasts in one cell.
Large central vacuole
This is one of the largest structures inside plant cells. It is enveloped by a membrane named the tonoplast. It holds water and ions.
Centrosome
A structure found only in animal cells. They are generally located near the nucleus and are crucial to the process of cell division.
Organ system
A group of two or more organs that work together to achieve an identical goal.
Name the 11 organ systems in the human body.
Circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory, nervous, endocrine, immune, integumentary, skeletal, muscle and reproductive systems are all organ systems in the human body.
Name the organ system that permits air to enter the lungs and allows oxygen to be absorbed by the blood.
This is the respiratory system. This complex system starts at the nose and mouth and has several other organs, including the lungs, to achieve its function.
Name the organ system that contains the heart and transports blood throughout the body.
This is the circulatory system. In addition to the heart, this system contains veins, arteries and capillaries found all throughout the body.
Name the organ system that breaks down food and provides nutrients for the body.
This is the digestive system. It contains organs such as the mouth, esophagus, and stomach.
Name the organ system that contains the brain and spinal cord.
This is the central nervous system. Its main function is taking in information and telling the body how to respond.
Name the three types of muscle found in the muscular system.
Cardiac muscle is located in the heart, skeletal muscle, which supports our movement, and smooth muscle, located in organs that function without us telling them to, like the stomach.
Identify the organ system pictured here.
This image depicts some of the most important bones in the skeletal system. This system contains bones and cartilage.
Name the organ system that contains skin, hair, and nails.
This is the integumentary system. It serves as a protector and structural system for the body.
Name the organ system that includes white blood cells and lymphatic vessels, that works to protect the body from toxins and battles infections.
This is the immune system.
Name the organ system pictured here.
This is the endocrine system. This system communicates messages through hormones to other organ systems.
Name the organ system that contains nerves that send messages to and from the central nervous system and throughout the body to the muscles.
This is the peripheral nervous system.
Name the organ system that allows for new organisms to be created. This system differs anatomically in males and females.
This is the reproductive system. In this process, sperm cells from the male unite with eggs from the female. They create a zygote, or a new cell.
Name the organ system pictured here.
These organs are part of the female urinary or excretory system. These organs work together to remove waste from the body through urine.
Name the number and types of chambers in the heart of a horse.
A horse has two atria and two ventricles. This is the same number and type as humans, dogs, and cats.
Name the type of animal that primarily uses gills to breathe.
Most fish, aside from a few unique species, have gills instead of lungs. These gills allow them to breathe under water.
Name the added component to the digestive system of birds that is found on their esophagus.
A crop allows birds to keep food in their esophagus before it moves to the stomach. This softens food before digestion and provides a spot to keep food so they can regurgitate for their young.

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