FTCE Earth Science Flashcards

FTCE Earth Science Flashcards
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Name the three types of rock.
Igneous rocks are formed from cooling magma. Sedimentary rocks are broken pieces of rocks that are formed together with pressure. Metamorphicrocks are created through extreme heat and pressure.
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The rock cycle
A diagram that describes the formation, change, and destruction of the Earth's rocks that are created from magma.
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Loam
Soil made of sand, silt, and clay. This is ideal for use in gardening as it holds moisture, but also allows for adequate drainage.
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Name the three basic types of soil.
Sandis very small, course pieces of rock that does not hold water. Silt is a fine sand that can hold water. Clay is very fine soil that does not hold water or allow plants to grow.
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Soil
The top layer of the earth's surface both made up of organic and inorganic materials. It is a mixture of nutrients from plants, animals, rocks, and minerals.
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Identify the two types of weathering.

Mechanical. An example of mechanical weathering is wind, water, and temperature shaping landforms.

Chemical. An example of chemical weathering is acid dissolving rocks, creating caves.

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Erosion
The displacing of rock fragments from place to place. Deposition is the term used to describe where these rock pieces end up staying or depositing.
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Weathering
The wearing away of rocks due to natural forces, like wind and water.
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Name the three classifications of volcanoes.
Active (has erupted in past 10,000 years), dormant ( has not erupted in the past 10,000 years, but could), and extinct (not expected to ever erupt again)
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Plate Tectonics
A theory that the Earth's crust is cracked into sections, creating mobile plates. These cracks allow magma to rise and form volcanos. The Ring of Fire is a crack home to many active volcanoes.
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Volcano
A vent in the crust of the earth. A volcano can explode lava, rocks, hot vapors, and gases. They are created when magma, hot liquid rock deep in the earth, begins to rise.
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Valley
A lower area of land, depressed into the ground. A canyon is an extremely deep and narrow valley.
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Elevation
This term refers to the height of a land formation above sea level. Mountains are an example of a landform with an elevation higher than 1,000 feet with a peak at the top.
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Islands
Formations of land surrounded by water.
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Identify this as a peninsula or a bay.
This is a bay, an inlet of water surrounded by land. A peninsula protrudes, or sticks out, from the main land.
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Coasts
This is the edge of land next to the sea.
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Landforms
These are naturally occurring formations on the surface of the Earth.
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Flashcard Content Overview

The topic of Earth Science is full of interesting ideas about the world we live in. Just turn on your facet or look at a nearby mountain and you have experienced an aspect of Earth Science. From weather to landforms, we deal with Earth Science concepts on a daily basis, so it's important to gain an understanding of key terminology and content. Use this set of flashcards to familiarize yourself with this subject while you review these engaging and descriptive cards.

Front
Back
Landforms
These are naturally occurring formations on the surface of the Earth.
Coasts
This is the edge of land next to the sea.
Identify this as a peninsula or a bay.
This is a bay, an inlet of water surrounded by land. A peninsula protrudes, or sticks out, from the main land.
Islands
Formations of land surrounded by water.
Elevation
This term refers to the height of a land formation above sea level. Mountains are an example of a landform with an elevation higher than 1,000 feet with a peak at the top.
Valley
A lower area of land, depressed into the ground. A canyon is an extremely deep and narrow valley.
Volcano
A vent in the crust of the earth. A volcano can explode lava, rocks, hot vapors, and gases. They are created when magma, hot liquid rock deep in the earth, begins to rise.
Plate Tectonics
A theory that the Earth's crust is cracked into sections, creating mobile plates. These cracks allow magma to rise and form volcanos. The Ring of Fire is a crack home to many active volcanoes.
Name the three classifications of volcanoes.
Active (has erupted in past 10,000 years), dormant ( has not erupted in the past 10,000 years, but could), and extinct (not expected to ever erupt again)
Weathering
The wearing away of rocks due to natural forces, like wind and water.
Erosion
The displacing of rock fragments from place to place. Deposition is the term used to describe where these rock pieces end up staying or depositing.
Identify the two types of weathering.

Mechanical. An example of mechanical weathering is wind, water, and temperature shaping landforms.

Chemical. An example of chemical weathering is acid dissolving rocks, creating caves.

Soil
The top layer of the earth's surface both made up of organic and inorganic materials. It is a mixture of nutrients from plants, animals, rocks, and minerals.
Name the three basic types of soil.
Sandis very small, course pieces of rock that does not hold water. Silt is a fine sand that can hold water. Clay is very fine soil that does not hold water or allow plants to grow.
Loam
Soil made of sand, silt, and clay. This is ideal for use in gardening as it holds moisture, but also allows for adequate drainage.
The rock cycle
A diagram that describes the formation, change, and destruction of the Earth's rocks that are created from magma.
Name the three types of rock.
Igneous rocks are formed from cooling magma. Sedimentary rocks are broken pieces of rocks that are formed together with pressure. Metamorphicrocks are created through extreme heat and pressure.
Soil profile
This is the vertical face of soil that is visible when a soil pit, or a hole in the soil, is dug. Each appearing layer is called a horizon.
Name the five soil forming factors represented by the pneumonic ClORPT.
Climate, organisms, relief (topography), parent material, and time
Solar radiation
This is the light and energy emitted from the sun. This travels to earth through light waves , which are vibrations of electromagnetic fields.
Name the four major geological subsystems of Earth.
The atmosphere (gases), hydrosphere (waters), biosphere (living things), and geosphere (rocks)
Weather
This is the immediate condition of the atmosphere in a specific place and moment, this is a short term measurement.
Climate
This is the atmospheric conditions, or weather, that occur over a long period of time.
Consumptive useof water
This occurs when water is not returned to its source. Examples of this include agriculture and energy production.
Nonconsumptive use of water
This is when water is either not taken out of its source or is removed and returned. Examples of this include water flowing through dams and water used within the home.
Reclaimed water
This type of water is recycled and not purified but still able to be used for tasks such as watering grass.
Sun
The sun is the star that Earth orbits. It provides heat, light, and energy for wind, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
Name the process represented here.
This represents the water cycle. This is the system that explains how water moves and changes in relationship to Earth's surface and environmental factors.
Evaporation
The process that changes water from a liquid to a gas through a rise in temperature.
Condensation
The process that changes water from its gas state (or water vapor) into its liquid form. This occurs through the cooling of the gas.
Precipitation
When water leaves the atmosphere in the form of rain, sleet, snow, hail, or freezing rain.
Renewable resources
A type of resource that is reproduced or replenished naturally as fast or faster than it is used. Examples include solar energy and animals.
Non-renewable resources
These are resources that there is a limited supply of in the environment. Examples include oil and natural gas.
Name this landform.
This is a volcano. Notice the lava and steam erupting from its peak.

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