Functionalism in Psychology Flashcards

Functionalism in Psychology Flashcards
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Variability Hypothesis

This theory claimed that men had a greater variation in range of ability than women, and that women would all perform at roughly the same ability level.

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Eugenics

The process of breeding selectively in order to encourage desired traits and avoid traits that are undesired.

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Sir Francis Galton

He worked in a wide range of fields and found that you could identify people with their fingerprints. He also used reaction time tests to try to measure intelligence.

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Chronological Age

This type of age refers to how many years a person has been alive.

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Mental Age

This kind of age is determined by the intelligence test that a person completes.

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Intelligence Testing

Processes used to measure the brainpower of individuals. David Wechsler, Alfred Binet and Henry Goddard played important roles in developing these processes.

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Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

This relates to a measure of a person's intellect. It works by taking an individual's mental age and dividing by his or her chronological age and multiplying by 100.

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Sexual Selection

This subcategory of natural selection focuses on fitness and relative attractiveness in relation to reproduction.

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Natural Selection

This refers to the process that allows the individuals in a species that are most able to survive in a given environment to reproduce over others who are not as fit.

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Evolutionary Psychology

This branch of psychology is interested in understanding how adaptions caused by natural selection led to the current psychological characteristics of humans.

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Comparative Psychology

Practitioners of this branch of psychology focus on making conclusions about the behavior of humans based on the behavior of animals.

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Law of Parsimony (Occam's Razor)

This states that the correct solution to a problem is also the simplest one. It values simplicity in much the same way that Morgan's Canon does.

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C. Lloyd Morgan

He worked in comparative psychology and thought that human behavior was naturally simple. His 'Canon' said that behavior that can be explained by simple processes should be.

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Flashcard Content Overview

Working with these flashcards will give you the opportunity to review the work of:

  • William James
  • John Dewey
  • G. Stanley Hall
  • Sir Francis Galton
  • C. Lloyd Morgan

You'll be able to consider different fields in psychology, including:

  • Functionalism
  • Structuralism
  • Comparative psychology
  • Evolutionary psychology
  • Psychodynamic psychology

The variability hypothesis, the concept of recapitulation and free association are also addressed by the cards in this set.

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C. Lloyd Morgan

He worked in comparative psychology and thought that human behavior was naturally simple. His 'Canon' said that behavior that can be explained by simple processes should be.

Law of Parsimony (Occam's Razor)

This states that the correct solution to a problem is also the simplest one. It values simplicity in much the same way that Morgan's Canon does.

Comparative Psychology

Practitioners of this branch of psychology focus on making conclusions about the behavior of humans based on the behavior of animals.

Evolutionary Psychology

This branch of psychology is interested in understanding how adaptions caused by natural selection led to the current psychological characteristics of humans.

Natural Selection

This refers to the process that allows the individuals in a species that are most able to survive in a given environment to reproduce over others who are not as fit.

Sexual Selection

This subcategory of natural selection focuses on fitness and relative attractiveness in relation to reproduction.

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

This relates to a measure of a person's intellect. It works by taking an individual's mental age and dividing by his or her chronological age and multiplying by 100.

Intelligence Testing

Processes used to measure the brainpower of individuals. David Wechsler, Alfred Binet and Henry Goddard played important roles in developing these processes.

Mental Age

This kind of age is determined by the intelligence test that a person completes.

Chronological Age

This type of age refers to how many years a person has been alive.

Sir Francis Galton

He worked in a wide range of fields and found that you could identify people with their fingerprints. He also used reaction time tests to try to measure intelligence.

Eugenics

The process of breeding selectively in order to encourage desired traits and avoid traits that are undesired.

Variability Hypothesis

This theory claimed that men had a greater variation in range of ability than women, and that women would all perform at roughly the same ability level.

Functionalism

A branch of psychology interested in the ways the roles we fill in society can influence our mental states. It is interested in exploring the purpose of the mind.

Early Feminist Psychology

This part of psychology supported first-wave feminism and was spearheaded by individuals such as Mary Whiton Calkins, Helen Bradford Thompson Woolley and Leta Stetter Hollingworth.

G. Stanley Hall

This psychologist was interested in studying adolescence and human development in that period. He also came up with the concept of recapitulation.

Concept of Recapitulation

This idea, developed by G. Stanley Hall, states that we repeat and display behaviors that were used by our evolutionary ancestors.

Herbert Spencer

This sociologist is famous for applying Darwin's theories to change and evolution that occurs on the societal level.

Structural-Functional Perspective

This perspective states that a variety of structures, each with a job to complete, make up society as a whole. It was influenced by Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer.

Social Darwinism

A theory that applied the ideas behind the survival of the fittest to society and how individuals flourish or die out.

Psychodynamic Psychology

The branch of psychology most interested in the unconscious mind and how it impacts the development of humans.

Archetypes

Symbols that are charged emotionally and that can be used to represent concepts. For example, angels might be used to represent ultimate good.

Free Association

A technique used in psychodynamic psychology wherein individuals are given a prompt and have to respond with the first thing that they think of.

John Dewey's 'The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology'

This article criticized the ideology of structuralism and contributed to the acceptance of functionalism in psychology.

Structuralism

This branch of psychology is primarily interested in understanding how the consciousness and components of the mind of a person are set up.

William James' The Principles of Psychology

A treatise on psychology that was first published in 1890. It was 1,200 pages long.

William James

Sometimes called the father of American psychology. He valued pragmatism, which said that an idea's use should be the focus of psychology, instead of abstract truths.

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