Human Cognition Flashcards

Human Cognition Flashcards
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Semantics
The study of how different types of sounds, which are represented by different letters and syllables, join together to form words that have specific meanings
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Divergent thinking
People who are able to think abstractly and come up with a variety of different conceptual solutions to a problem often use this type of thinking, which is strongly linked to creativity
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Analytical intelligence
People with this skill may be very matter-of-fact and tend to want clear, demonstrably correct answers to questions
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Naturalist intelligence
This type of intelligence relates to a connection to the world outside of human development; gardener, animal trainers and scientific researchers may display this
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Intrapersonal intelligence
Self-reflective and self-aware people who are in touch with their motivations and emotions express this type of intelligence
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Interpersonal intelligence
This type of intelligence deals with social skills and one's ability to get along well with other people
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Bodily and kinesthetic intelligence
This kind of intelligence is often found in athletes, dancers, carpenters and other people whose areas of excellence tend to be physical, including those who learn best by doing
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Musical intelligence
A person with this kind of intelligence may be able to recreate a tune on piano after hearing it on the radio only once or may have a natural ability to find rhythm
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Logical and mathematical intelligence
This kind of intelligence lends itself well to problem solving and deductive reasoning or excellence in math and science; individuals who are good with numbers are likely to have this
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Linguistic intelligence
People with this type of intelligence may be 'good with words,' with the ability to speak articulately or write entertaining stories
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Visual intelligence
Individuals with this kind of intelligence may be able to create vivid images in their imaginations and may learn best when they can see a picture or demonstration of what's being discussed
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The theory of multiple intelligences
This theory was formalized by American psychologist Howard Gardner and argues that intelligence can be seen in different ways and that book smarts aren't the only way of expressing intellect
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Howard Gardner
A psychologist who introduced the theory of multiple intelligences; this man recognized that methods of learning and intellectual strengths vary from person to person
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Eugenics/Social Darwinism
A concept that focuses on eliminating certain genetic factors, usually related to race or ethnicity, that are wrongly beloved to be an automatic indicator of intellectual inferiority
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David Wechsler
A psychologist who believed socioeconomic factors impact intellectual evaluations and argued against single-factor intellectual evaluation, favoring a two-factor testing system
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Specific intelligence
This concept reflects the fact that people may have greater intellectual abilities in certain areas, such as a person who is an exceptional writer who is not as excellent at math
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General intelligence
This concept argues that the way a person performs on one task, such as reading, is likely to reflect how they will perform on another task, such as math, due to a consistent level of intellectual effort
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34 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

Have you ever felt unfairly judged by another person's perception of what it means to be intelligent? Maybe you aren't quick with arithmetic, but you are really good at meeting new people and remembering their names. This flashcard set covers important vocabulary related to these concepts, from the theory of multiple intelligences to the different kinds of memory and the way things like the misinformation effect can distort the way we see events in our past.

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General intelligence
This concept argues that the way a person performs on one task, such as reading, is likely to reflect how they will perform on another task, such as math, due to a consistent level of intellectual effort
Specific intelligence
This concept reflects the fact that people may have greater intellectual abilities in certain areas, such as a person who is an exceptional writer who is not as excellent at math
David Wechsler
A psychologist who believed socioeconomic factors impact intellectual evaluations and argued against single-factor intellectual evaluation, favoring a two-factor testing system
Eugenics/Social Darwinism
A concept that focuses on eliminating certain genetic factors, usually related to race or ethnicity, that are wrongly beloved to be an automatic indicator of intellectual inferiority
Howard Gardner
A psychologist who introduced the theory of multiple intelligences; this man recognized that methods of learning and intellectual strengths vary from person to person
The theory of multiple intelligences
This theory was formalized by American psychologist Howard Gardner and argues that intelligence can be seen in different ways and that book smarts aren't the only way of expressing intellect
Visual intelligence
Individuals with this kind of intelligence may be able to create vivid images in their imaginations and may learn best when they can see a picture or demonstration of what's being discussed
Linguistic intelligence
People with this type of intelligence may be 'good with words,' with the ability to speak articulately or write entertaining stories
Logical and mathematical intelligence
This kind of intelligence lends itself well to problem solving and deductive reasoning or excellence in math and science; individuals who are good with numbers are likely to have this
Musical intelligence
A person with this kind of intelligence may be able to recreate a tune on piano after hearing it on the radio only once or may have a natural ability to find rhythm
Bodily and kinesthetic intelligence
This kind of intelligence is often found in athletes, dancers, carpenters and other people whose areas of excellence tend to be physical, including those who learn best by doing
Interpersonal intelligence
This type of intelligence deals with social skills and one's ability to get along well with other people
Intrapersonal intelligence
Self-reflective and self-aware people who are in touch with their motivations and emotions express this type of intelligence
Naturalist intelligence
This type of intelligence relates to a connection to the world outside of human development; gardener, animal trainers and scientific researchers may display this
Analytical intelligence
People with this skill may be very matter-of-fact and tend to want clear, demonstrably correct answers to questions
Divergent thinking
People who are able to think abstractly and come up with a variety of different conceptual solutions to a problem often use this type of thinking, which is strongly linked to creativity
Semantics
The study of how different types of sounds, which are represented by different letters and syllables, join together to form words that have specific meanings
Phonemes
The building blocks of language, such as vowel or consonant sounds, that are the most basic units of distinctive sound that can represent a spoken language
Morphemes
Basic letter and sound constructions that represent meaning on their own, including prefixes (re-) and suffixes (-ed)
Encoding
The first step of the memory process; this involves unconscious processes in the brain that prepare a memory for storage based on your perception of the event
Storage
The second step in the memory process, which involves encoded experiences being transferred to the long-term memory function centers of the brain for later retrieval
Retrieval
The third step in the memory process; in this step, the brain extracts stored memories, allowing you to remember things that happened in the past
Misinformation effect
A phenomenon in which memory can be distorted with the addition of new details or exposure to a different version of events
Choice-supportive bias
A form of memory distortion in which people see a decision-making process differently in hindsight based on the outcome of their choice, which can eliminate cognitive dissonance
Procedural memories
This type of memory covers habitual behaviors such as brushing your teeth, meaning you may be able to let your mind wander while carrying out these actions
Episodic memory
Long-term memory of specific events that allows you to recall things like the names and faces of new acquaintances or what happened before a car accident
Semantic memory
This type of long-term memory allows you to recall facts, figures and concepts, such as the date of your mom's birthday or the name of your favorite painting
Sensory memory
A fleeting short-term memory that causes an echo in one of the senses, such as a remaining tingling feeling in the hand after brushing it against a wall
Iconic memory
Also known as visual memory; this is a type of sensory memory that causes a visual echo of an image that is no longer actually within your view
The Magical Number 7, Plus or Minus 2
A study in which George Miller used a series of numbers to prove that there are distinct limits to the human short-term memory
Chunking
A way of breaking up long strings of information into smaller bits, such as splitting a 7-digit phone number into two subgroups of three and four numbers
Mnemonic device
A rhyme, acronym or other linguistic tool that helps improve long-term memory of concepts or lists
Source amnesia
A type of memory distortion where you can remember something but not where you learned it
Misinformation effect
Memory distortion where details of a story change over time until you remember them the way you tell the story and not the way they really happened.

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