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Human Growth & Development Theory Flashcards

Human Growth & Development Theory Flashcards
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Operant conditioning
Changing voluntary behaviors with positive reinforcement (which increases the behavior) or negative punishment (which decreases the behavior). This method was pioneered by Mr. Skinner.
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Classical conditioning
This is when an involuntary response is triggered because of a previous experience. An individual learns to associate two different stimuli. Pioneered by Mr. Pavlov.
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Freud's versus Erikson's Developmental Theories
Freud's theory is based on PYSCHOSEXUAL stages, the power of biological drives. Erikson's theory is based on PSYCHOSOCIAL stages, the interaction between society and the environment.
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Genital Stage
Freud's final developmental stage of an individual in which biological impulses battle against moral obligations. This stage starts in the teenage years and lasts through adulthood.
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Initiative versus Guilt
Erikson's belief of the conflict children ages 3 to 6 experience. During this time, children need to be independent at times. If not given the opportunity, they may feel guilt.
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Trust versus Mistrust
Erikson's first stage of infancy. The major conflict at this point of development is whether a person can be trusted to provide care.
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Industry versus Inferiority
Erikson's belief of the conflict in children ages 6-12. They are learning real adult skills. If encouraged in their abilities, they will become industrious.
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Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Erikson's belief of the conflict in children ages 1-3. They are exploring their surroundings, to see if they are able to handle new findings.
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Identity versus Role-Confusion
Erik Erikson's 5th stage of development. Occurs in adolescence, where a teenager struggles to find an identity, and does so by making new relationships with other adults and friends.
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Erik Erikson's theory of identity formation
He believed humans pass through eight stages of psychosocial development. Each stage is characterized by two opposing forces.
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Sigmund Freud's concept of consciousness
Sigmund Freud theorized consciousness was comprised of three separate parts that worked together to determine an individual's behavior. These three parts were the id, the ego, and the superego.
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Psychoanalytic theory
Psychoanalytic theory looks at the role of the unconscious as a motivator behind behaviors.
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Cognitive development theories
These theories try to explain the development of the intellect, such as learning a new skill or solving a problem, in an individual.
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Gender schema theory
This theory states children form their own concept of gender roles by observing typical characteristics and behaviors of those around them, including teachers, parents, and society at large.
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29 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

This flashcard set examines many psychologists who pioneered well-known theories, ranging from the well-known, such as Erikson and Freud, to lesser known theorists, such as Bandura. Erikson's eight stages of development are also detailed. Also, the scientific method will be reviewed in its entirety. This includes a break down of difficult terminology related to research based endeavors.

Front
Back
Gender schema theory
This theory states children form their own concept of gender roles by observing typical characteristics and behaviors of those around them, including teachers, parents, and society at large.
Cognitive development theories
These theories try to explain the development of the intellect, such as learning a new skill or solving a problem, in an individual.
Psychoanalytic theory
Psychoanalytic theory looks at the role of the unconscious as a motivator behind behaviors.
Sigmund Freud's concept of consciousness
Sigmund Freud theorized consciousness was comprised of three separate parts that worked together to determine an individual's behavior. These three parts were the id, the ego, and the superego.
Erik Erikson's theory of identity formation
He believed humans pass through eight stages of psychosocial development. Each stage is characterized by two opposing forces.
Identity versus Role-Confusion
Erik Erikson's 5th stage of development. Occurs in adolescence, where a teenager struggles to find an identity, and does so by making new relationships with other adults and friends.
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Erikson's belief of the conflict in children ages 1-3. They are exploring their surroundings, to see if they are able to handle new findings.
Industry versus Inferiority
Erikson's belief of the conflict in children ages 6-12. They are learning real adult skills. If encouraged in their abilities, they will become industrious.
Trust versus Mistrust
Erikson's first stage of infancy. The major conflict at this point of development is whether a person can be trusted to provide care.
Initiative versus Guilt
Erikson's belief of the conflict children ages 3 to 6 experience. During this time, children need to be independent at times. If not given the opportunity, they may feel guilt.
Genital Stage
Freud's final developmental stage of an individual in which biological impulses battle against moral obligations. This stage starts in the teenage years and lasts through adulthood.
Freud's versus Erikson's Developmental Theories
Freud's theory is based on PYSCHOSEXUAL stages, the power of biological drives. Erikson's theory is based on PSYCHOSOCIAL stages, the interaction between society and the environment.
Classical conditioning
This is when an involuntary response is triggered because of a previous experience. An individual learns to associate two different stimuli. Pioneered by Mr. Pavlov.
Operant conditioning
Changing voluntary behaviors with positive reinforcement (which increases the behavior) or negative punishment (which decreases the behavior). This method was pioneered by Mr. Skinner.
Positive punishment versus Negative punishment
Positive punishment is the ADDITION of something undesirable as a consequence. A negative punishment is REMOVING something desirable as a consequence.
Spontaneous recovery
Spontaneous recovery is the unexpected recurrence of a conditioned response after that behavior has shown extinction. It is normally short lived.
Albert Bandura's social learning theory
This theory revolves around the reciprocal causation model highlighting the importance of the interactions between behavioral elements, personal factors and the environment.
Vicarious reinforcement

Vicarious reinforcement has 2 major components:

1. A model's behavior makes reinforcement for a certain behavior.

2. Positive emotional reactions are felt by the observer.

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
This theory by Jean Piaget states that children are learners who form concepts from their surroundings through assimilation and accommodation. Complex cognitive growth occurs by equilibration.
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
A theory of development that looks at the effect of the environment (the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, the macrosystem, and the chronosystem) on an individual.
The Scientific Method

The scientific method has 3 steps:

1. Identify a problem, by picking an area of research and learning about it.

2. Observe variables.

3. Collect data to reach conclusions about the problem.

Primary Data Collection
When existing information is unusable, primary data collection procures data for an area of research. Surveys, observations and experimental designs are all forms of primary data collection.
Random Sample

A random sample is when every participant in a research study has an equal likelihood of being selected to participate in the study. This is part of research design.

A Dependent Variable

The variable that is MEASURED in a research experiment

Longitudinal Study
Longitudinal research projects examine one individual or one group over an extended period of time.
Case Study
A case study is a research project examining the data from one individual or one specific event.
Validity in Research

The term used to assess if a research study measures what it proposes to measure

Continuous measurement
A continuous measurement refers to variables that can take on any value within a range of the measurement. This is also known by the term 'quantitative data.'
An Independent Variable

The variable that is CHANGED during a research experiment

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