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Introduction to Biochemistry Flashcards

Introduction to Biochemistry Flashcards
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Competitive Inhibition of Enzymes
A form of enzymatic inhibition that occurs if a non-substrate blocks an enzyme from bonding with a substrate by filling the enzyme's active site.
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Calvin Cycle / Dark Reactions
A process in photosynthesis that involves fixing inorganic carbon to organic carbon, resulting in the creation of sugar from carbon dioxide.
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Chloroplasts
Photosynthesis occurs within these plant organelles, which contain chlorophyll. Electrons in the chlorophyll become excited when exposed to sunlight in the process of photosynthesis.
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Photosynthesis
Some organisms, including plants, use this process to create energy. It converts carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and glucose, a sugar.
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Anaerobic Respiration
A type of cellular respiration that can occur without oxygen. It does not result in the creation of very much ATP.
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Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule used as energy by many organisms. This is created during cellular respiration.
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Cellular Respiration
Organisms make use of this process to convert food to energy, most often in the form of ATP. This process also results in the creation of water and carbon dioxide.
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Flashcard Content Overview

Access this set of flashcards when you're ready to review the steps involved in the process of cellular respiration, as well as its purpose. You can focus on anaerobic respiration, the electron transport chain and ATP. Photosynthesis will also be covered by these cards. You'll find cards that deal with the Calvin Cycle and photolysis. Additionally, these cards can allow you to go over enzymes, enzyme activators and enzyme inhibition.

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Cellular Respiration
Organisms make use of this process to convert food to energy, most often in the form of ATP. This process also results in the creation of water and carbon dioxide.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule used as energy by many organisms. This is created during cellular respiration.
Anaerobic Respiration
A type of cellular respiration that can occur without oxygen. It does not result in the creation of very much ATP.
Photosynthesis
Some organisms, including plants, use this process to create energy. It converts carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and glucose, a sugar.
Chloroplasts
Photosynthesis occurs within these plant organelles, which contain chlorophyll. Electrons in the chlorophyll become excited when exposed to sunlight in the process of photosynthesis.
Calvin Cycle / Dark Reactions
A process in photosynthesis that involves fixing inorganic carbon to organic carbon, resulting in the creation of sugar from carbon dioxide.
Competitive Inhibition of Enzymes
A form of enzymatic inhibition that occurs if a non-substrate blocks an enzyme from bonding with a substrate by filling the enzyme's active site.
Noncompetitive Inhibition of Enzymes
In this type of enzymatic inhibition, the activity of enzymes is disrupted when a non-substrate bonds to an enzyme somewhere other than its active site.
Enzyme Activators
These molecules regulate enzymatic activity in a positive way.
Enzymes
These proteins are responsible for catalyzing chemical reactions. We have a lot of them in our cells and they all function with specific substrates. They are not used up during these reactions.
Factors that affect how well enzymes can bind to substrates

Temperature

pH

Concentration of substrates

Photolysis
A light reaction that occurs during photosynthesis. Plants use light energy to divide water and create oxygen during this process.
Steps in Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis (glucose is broken down into pyruvate)

Pyruvate oxidation (pyruvate is modified)

Citric acid cycle

Electron transport chain (ADP is transformed to ATP)

Electron Transport Chain
An important step in cellular respiration that occurs when electron carriers move the electrons they collected during earlier steps in cellular respiration, resulting in the creation of ATP.

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