Juvenile Justice in the U.S. Flashcards

Juvenile Justice in the U.S. Flashcards
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Sentencing

The process by which a person is given their punishment after being found guilty

Occurs in the adult justice system but not the juvenile justice system

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Graham v. Florida

A 2010 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing that life in prison without parole is cruel and unusual punishment for a juvenile and is in violation of the Eighth Amendment

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Roper v. Simmons
A 2005 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing that juveniles in court cannot receive the death penalty
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McKeiver v. Pennsylvania

A 1971 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing that juveniles do not have the right to a jury trial unless being tried as an adult due to a bindover

Protects the closed character nature of the trial

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Parens Patriae
A doctrine allowing juveniles with mental, legal, or physical disabilities to be granted guardianship by the state in order to aid in their rehabilitation
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Juvenile

Within the court system, a person under 18 years of age

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In re Winship
A 1970 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing the right of juveniles to be found guilty only 'by proof beyond a reasonable doubt'
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In re Gault

A 1967 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing that juveniles facing a criminal trial that could lead to their incarceration be given the same trial rights as adults

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Kent v. United States
A 1966 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing that a juvenile facing a bindover and their attorney be granted access to information from the court describing why a bindover was requested
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Gideon v. Wainwright

A 1963 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing the right to an attorney for every U.S. citizen facing a criminal trial

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Flashcard Content Overview

A person's age is very important for determining how they will be treated in the United States justice system. This flashcard set deals specifically with the juvenile justice system, reserved for individuals under the age of 18. It will help you review how juveniles are treated differently than adults and the major U.S. Supreme Court rulings that helped shape the criminal trials of juveniles.

Front
Back
Gideon v. Wainwright

A 1963 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing the right to an attorney for every U.S. citizen facing a criminal trial

Kent v. United States
A 1966 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing that a juvenile facing a bindover and their attorney be granted access to information from the court describing why a bindover was requested
In re Gault

A 1967 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing that juveniles facing a criminal trial that could lead to their incarceration be given the same trial rights as adults

In re Winship
A 1970 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing the right of juveniles to be found guilty only 'by proof beyond a reasonable doubt'
Juvenile

Within the court system, a person under 18 years of age

Parens Patriae
A doctrine allowing juveniles with mental, legal, or physical disabilities to be granted guardianship by the state in order to aid in their rehabilitation
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania

A 1971 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing that juveniles do not have the right to a jury trial unless being tried as an adult due to a bindover

Protects the closed character nature of the trial

Roper v. Simmons
A 2005 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing that juveniles in court cannot receive the death penalty
Graham v. Florida

A 2010 U.S. Supreme Court case establishing that life in prison without parole is cruel and unusual punishment for a juvenile and is in violation of the Eighth Amendment

Sentencing

The process by which a person is given their punishment after being found guilty

Occurs in the adult justice system but not the juvenile justice system

Witness Testimony

The process by which individuals present during the incident in question are asked while under oath to describe, in their words, what occurred

Occurs in the adult and juvenile justice systems

Direct Examination

The process by which a defense's witness is asked questions by a prosecutor

Occurs in the adult and juvenile justice systems

Cross Examination

The process by which a defense's witness is asked questions by a defense attorney following a direct examination by the prosecution

Occurs in the adult and juvenile justice systems

Bond

A judge-established set of conditions ensuring a defendant attends their hearings and trial

May or may not involve money

Allowed in the adult justice system but not the juvenile justice system

Major Goal of Juvenile Justice System
Rehabilitation instead of punishment
Community-Based Correctional Alternatives to Incarceration

Allows for a juvenile to stay in their home and their school in their community while rehabilitating

Examples: probation, community service, and therapy

Therapy
A type of community-based correctional alternative to incarceration that involves some type of counseling, often related to what caused the juvenile's offense(s), with a therapist
Juvenile Death Penalty

This punishment is not considered acceptable in the U.S. because juveniles are seen as immature and capable of change. This was affirmed by the case Roper v. Simmons.

Jury Trial

A trial where the outcome is decided by a group of the defendant's peers. Juveniles do not typically have the right to this kind of trail per the outcome of the case McKeiver vs. Pennsylvania.

Juvenile Court: Standard of Proof

This type of court requires cases to be proven beyond a reasonable doubt, just as an adult court would. This was supported by the case In re Winship.

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