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Logical Thinking Flashcards

Logical Thinking Flashcards
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Hasty Generalization
When an assumption (that a truth in the antecedent applies to the whole category) is used as the reasoning for the consequent, resulting in a false consequent.
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Material Fallacy
When the reasoning used to draw a conclusion based on the antecedents is faulty, resulting in a false consequent.
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Structural Fallacy
When the antecedents are not true, resulting in a false consequent even though logical thinking has occurred with the information given.
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Logical Fallacy
In a faulty attempt at logical thinking, this is the mistake that causes the consequents to not be logically sound.
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Drawing Logical Conclusions
Making appropriate and accurate consequents.
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Consequents
The logical conclusion that is based on the information found in the antecedents.
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Antecedents
The initial ideas or statements that are given. The starting information in the process of logical thought.
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Logical Thinking
The thought process that looks at the relationship (and transition) between two related thoughts or statements.
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Flashcard Content Overview

Most people would like to think that they are logical thinkers, but are they really? How can they tell? What is exactly logical thinking, anyway? People have long studied and outlined logic and possible logical pitfalls. In this flashcard set, you will learn what logical thinking is, what makes thinking logical, and the common types of confused reasoning skills that get in the way of logical thinking.

Front
Back
Logical Thinking
The thought process that looks at the relationship (and transition) between two related thoughts or statements.
Antecedents
The initial ideas or statements that are given. The starting information in the process of logical thought.
Consequents
The logical conclusion that is based on the information found in the antecedents.
Drawing Logical Conclusions
Making appropriate and accurate consequents.
Logical Fallacy
In a faulty attempt at logical thinking, this is the mistake that causes the consequents to not be logically sound.
Structural Fallacy
When the antecedents are not true, resulting in a false consequent even though logical thinking has occurred with the information given.
Material Fallacy
When the reasoning used to draw a conclusion based on the antecedents is faulty, resulting in a false consequent.
Hasty Generalization
When an assumption (that a truth in the antecedent applies to the whole category) is used as the reasoning for the consequent, resulting in a false consequent.
Ad Hominem
Substituting a logically-determined consequent for an attack on the subject of the antecedent.
Appeal to Ignorance
The illogical view that no evidence about something in the antecedent means that the consequent is true. There is no logical reason to think that it is true or not true.
Appeal to Faith
Forming a consequent from the antecedent based on a belief without proof. Without supporting proof, the consequent is not logical.
Appeal to Tradition
When given an antecedent, jumping to a consequent based on traditions without consideration of a logical chain of thought.
False Authority
Assuming that the antecedent is true because someone with perceived authority, but no actual credentials, said it.
Bandwagon Fallacy
The assumption that an antecedent is true because a large majority of people believe it to be. A false antecedent leads to a false consequent.
Slippery Slope
Jumping from consequent to (often illogically concluded) consequent, to make the assumption that the final consequent is actually the consequent of the original antecedent.
Two Wrongs Make a Right
Illogically using the reasoning that because multiple people are doing something immoral in the antecedent, the consequent is that the action is moral.
The Straw-Man Fallacy
When the logical consequent is considered undesirable, the attempt to avoid acknowledging it by focusing on related but irrelevant information.

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