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Major Educational Philosophies Flashcards

Major Educational Philosophies Flashcards
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Law of Readiness

A component of connectionism that says a stimulus-response bond is strengthened when students are ready to learn. Teachers that give students transition/settling time can increase learning.

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Educational Realism

An educational philosophy that uses logic, critical thinking, and the scientific method to study the natural world. It utilizes real-world experiences instead of textbooks.

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'Whole Child' Approach in Progressivism

This encourages academic and citizenship education. For example, a social studies unit on elections might also focus on why people should vote.

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Components of Progressivism

Student-centered, hands-on learning

'Whole child' approach

Collaboration

Active learning

Use of the scientific method

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Perennialism

An educational philosophy that relies on evergreen ideas, or ideas about education that have been around for a long time, instead of current trends.

Teaches classic literature like Shakespeare.

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Pragmatism

An educational philosophy that stresses the teaching of practical life skills through practical and experiential learning and encourages personal growth.

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Jeffersonianism

Based on the philosophy of Thomas Jefferson, it stresses inclusive and citizen education and utilizes mentoring.

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Information Processing Theory

A theory describing how information is processed and stored in the brain. It states that information proceeds from sensory storage to working memory to long-term memory.

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Automaticity

This is when a task is practiced repetitively to make it automatic. It can be used to increase the availability of working memory space.

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Cognitive Load

Students experience this overload of information when they hold too much data in their working memory. It leads to a poor transfer from working memory to long-term memory.

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Extrinsic Motivator

A type of reward that is outside an individual. For example, a teacher might offer a piece of candy for completing homework.

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Humanism

This is a branch of psychology that describes fulfillment of potential as the goal of peoples' lives. Core components include self-directed learning, self-evaluation, and lifelong learning.

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Self-Directed Learning

Part of humanistic learning

Students determine what is important or desirable to learn and the teacher acts as an aid in their process

Can help unmotivated students become excited about learning

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Critical Theory in Education

Educators question societal views and attempt to find ways to be inclusive to all students, including those who are disadvantaged due to gender, culture, race, or socioeconomic status.

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Constructivism

An educational philosophy that states that people learn by doing, or from experience.

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Behaviorism

A psychological philosophy based on the idea that people perform actions to either acquire rewards or evade punishments. It's useful for uncooperative students.

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Extinction

This occurs when a reinforcement in behaviorism is removed or is too inconsistent.

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Negative Punishment

This is meant to diminish bad behaviors. It usually involves taking something away that a person wants.

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37 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

A few generations ago, teaching styles were relatively similar. A teacher lectured at the front of a classroom, and students read out of textbooks. Within the last few decades, though, educational research has taken off, and we now have many more ways of teaching. The way a teacher chooses to teach their class is called their ''educational philosophy.'' These flashcards will review many of the common philosophies employed by today's educators.

Front
Back
Negative Punishment

This is meant to diminish bad behaviors. It usually involves taking something away that a person wants.

Extinction

This occurs when a reinforcement in behaviorism is removed or is too inconsistent.

Behaviorism

A psychological philosophy based on the idea that people perform actions to either acquire rewards or evade punishments. It's useful for uncooperative students.

Constructivism

An educational philosophy that states that people learn by doing, or from experience.

Critical Theory in Education

Educators question societal views and attempt to find ways to be inclusive to all students, including those who are disadvantaged due to gender, culture, race, or socioeconomic status.

Self-Directed Learning

Part of humanistic learning

Students determine what is important or desirable to learn and the teacher acts as an aid in their process

Can help unmotivated students become excited about learning

Humanism

This is a branch of psychology that describes fulfillment of potential as the goal of peoples' lives. Core components include self-directed learning, self-evaluation, and lifelong learning.

Extrinsic Motivator

A type of reward that is outside an individual. For example, a teacher might offer a piece of candy for completing homework.

Cognitive Load

Students experience this overload of information when they hold too much data in their working memory. It leads to a poor transfer from working memory to long-term memory.

Automaticity

This is when a task is practiced repetitively to make it automatic. It can be used to increase the availability of working memory space.

Information Processing Theory

A theory describing how information is processed and stored in the brain. It states that information proceeds from sensory storage to working memory to long-term memory.

Jeffersonianism

Based on the philosophy of Thomas Jefferson, it stresses inclusive and citizen education and utilizes mentoring.

Pragmatism

An educational philosophy that stresses the teaching of practical life skills through practical and experiential learning and encourages personal growth.

Perennialism

An educational philosophy that relies on evergreen ideas, or ideas about education that have been around for a long time, instead of current trends.

Teaches classic literature like Shakespeare.

Components of Progressivism

Student-centered, hands-on learning

'Whole child' approach

Collaboration

Active learning

Use of the scientific method

'Whole Child' Approach in Progressivism

This encourages academic and citizenship education. For example, a social studies unit on elections might also focus on why people should vote.

Educational Realism

An educational philosophy that uses logic, critical thinking, and the scientific method to study the natural world. It utilizes real-world experiences instead of textbooks.

Law of Readiness

A component of connectionism that says a stimulus-response bond is strengthened when students are ready to learn. Teachers that give students transition/settling time can increase learning.

Connectionism

An educational philosophy proposed by Edward Thorndike. This states that learning occurs when bonds are made between a stimulus and a response.

Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT)

A teaching method for all subjects and levels that incorporates multiple, culturally diverse ways of teaching to be inclusive of all students.

Collective Action

When a group of people come together to achieve a collective objective, such as when a group of educators fight for an issue together. It's a core value of the National Education Association.

National Education Association (NEA)

The largest organization that supports teachers in the U.S. professionally. It also lends its aid to students and paraprofessionals in the field of education.

American Federation of Teachers (AFT)

This union works to secure rights for teachers and paraprofessionals in the educational field. It was set up in Chicago in the 20th century.

Positive Punishment

A way of penalizing students for undesired behaviors. This specifically means making someone experience something they don't want, such as detention, as a penalty.

Negative Reinforcement

A method used to encourage desired behaviors. This involves removing something an individual doesn't like when they do something you want them to do.

Constructivism: Social Learning

Part of this educational philosophy states that students learn better when working with one another, so they can ask questions and better understand what they are learning.

Jeffersonianism: Citizen Education

This philosophy stresses the importance of teaching students how to understand the issues they face, especially so they are able to vote in an informed manner.

Realism

Aristotle first put forth this philosophy. This can be applied by teachers who give students the opportunity to study the natural world as it exists around them.

Self-Directed Learning: Foundations

This type of learning is based on the idea that if students can pick what they study, they will be more passionate and motivated to work on it.

Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT): Foundations

This instructional method is founded on the idea that students will learn more effectively if they grasp that the background and culture of a student impacts how he or she will respond.

Law of Exercise

A tenet of connectionism that asserts that you will grow better at something the more often that you do it.

Cognitive Load: Solutions

This issue can be improved by encouraging attention and rehearsal, presenting fewer things at a time, and chunking information.

Educate America Act: Student Goals by the Year 2000

All students will be ready to learn when starting school. All adults will be literate. The graduation rate for high school will be at least 90%. U.S. students will rank first in math and science.

Educate America Act: School Goals for the Year 2000

Schools will have a conducive learning environment and partner with parents. They will help students use their minds and give teachers chances for professional development.

Educate America Act / Goals 2000

A law from 1994 that granted the U.S. government a position in education. It set up 8 educational goals and increased the ability of people to access preschool programs.

Educate America Act / Goals 2000: Measuring Student Competency

This law required student skills to be gauged at the end of the following grades: 4, 8, and 12. This was done through testing.

Culturally Response Teaching (CRT): Characteristics

This teaching method supports choice and personal development. It improves competence and learning values while establishing inclusion.

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