Middle Ages Flashcards

Middle Ages Flashcards
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Outcome of the Great Schism
The Christian Church was divided into two sanctions, Eastern Orthodox and Western Catholicism, after the Patriarch of Constantinople and Pope Leo IX excommunicated each other.
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Major disagreement during the Great Schism
Both sides greatly disagreed on the issue of papal authority. Since the Pope lived in the Western region, Bishops in the East wanted to have their own decision-making authority.
Got it
Factors contributing to the Great Schism in 1054
The separation in geography, culture and language caused division in the Eastern and Western Roman Empires, leading to the Church splitting into Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Catholicism.
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Societal changes from the urban revolution
As cities grew and trade further developed, merchants selling the bounty of the agriculture revolution and skilled tradesmen formed a new wealthy middle class that rivaled the nobility.
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The harrow's impact on agriculture
This tool allowed farmers to quickly and efficiently plant fields by burying the seeds in the furrows within hours instead of days.
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Three-field crop rotation system
When farmer's grow wheat to eat in one field, oats for horses in a second field and allow the third field to lie fallow to replenish soil nutrients.
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Charlemagne's building projects
During his reign, he commissioned the building of cathedrals and monasteries, which also served as schools.
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Divine Right of Kings
Asserts that a monarch's right to rule has been ordained directly from God, freeing him of having to answer to any earthly authority. Taking away a king's throne would thus go against God's will.
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Spurs
A sharp attachment anchored on a knight's boots which helped him steer and control the horse using his feet while in battle.
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Plate armor
Armor constructed to spread the impact from a blow across the entire piece of armor while deflecting and absorbing the impact.
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The Fourth Crusade
As part of an effort to rid the Holy lands from Muslim dominance, this crusade pillaged Constantinople and claimed control over the city, resulting in the depletion of Byzantine resources.
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Causes for the Christian monastic movements
In response to corruption within the Church, including the sale of church positions, monks like St. Benedict and William the Pious sought to live outside of the secular world.
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The self-sustainable nature of feudalism
This self-contained system used serfs to keep the land productive while the landowners (vassals) raised armies to protect those in the territory during times of conflict.
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Fief
Parcels of land gifted to nobility, or vassals, by the king in exchange for loyalty and protection when or if any challengers attempt to take over.
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Feudalism
The system in which land is given to nobility in exchange for allegiance and protection is offered to serfs who work the land.
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Feudalism's limits to the king's power
Although the king exchanged land for allegiance and protection, the nobility ultimately had control over the people in their territory, including the knights that were used for defense.
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Outcomes of feudalism
Feudalism results in an hierarchical system where the noble class has more control. While this system provides some political assurance, nobles were in constant wars over territory.
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Feudalism's role in aiding the Viking attacks
When the Holy Roman Empire resorted back to its feudalistic ways, internal fighting among nobles for territory distracted from the impending attacks from the Vikings.
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36 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

Use this flashcard set to memorize important events and changes that occurred during the Middle Ages. These flashcards cover the factors that contributed to separations within the Church and the causes and outcomes of important conflicts, including the Hundred Years' War. You'll also be able to test your recollection of societal shifts and agricultural advancements during this time period.

Front
Back
Feudalism's role in aiding the Viking attacks
When the Holy Roman Empire resorted back to its feudalistic ways, internal fighting among nobles for territory distracted from the impending attacks from the Vikings.
Outcomes of feudalism
Feudalism results in an hierarchical system where the noble class has more control. While this system provides some political assurance, nobles were in constant wars over territory.
Feudalism's limits to the king's power
Although the king exchanged land for allegiance and protection, the nobility ultimately had control over the people in their territory, including the knights that were used for defense.
Feudalism
The system in which land is given to nobility in exchange for allegiance and protection is offered to serfs who work the land.
Fief
Parcels of land gifted to nobility, or vassals, by the king in exchange for loyalty and protection when or if any challengers attempt to take over.
The self-sustainable nature of feudalism
This self-contained system used serfs to keep the land productive while the landowners (vassals) raised armies to protect those in the territory during times of conflict.
Causes for the Christian monastic movements
In response to corruption within the Church, including the sale of church positions, monks like St. Benedict and William the Pious sought to live outside of the secular world.
The Fourth Crusade
As part of an effort to rid the Holy lands from Muslim dominance, this crusade pillaged Constantinople and claimed control over the city, resulting in the depletion of Byzantine resources.
Plate armor
Armor constructed to spread the impact from a blow across the entire piece of armor while deflecting and absorbing the impact.
Spurs
A sharp attachment anchored on a knight's boots which helped him steer and control the horse using his feet while in battle.
Divine Right of Kings
Asserts that a monarch's right to rule has been ordained directly from God, freeing him of having to answer to any earthly authority. Taking away a king's throne would thus go against God's will.
Charlemagne's building projects
During his reign, he commissioned the building of cathedrals and monasteries, which also served as schools.
Three-field crop rotation system
When farmer's grow wheat to eat in one field, oats for horses in a second field and allow the third field to lie fallow to replenish soil nutrients.
The harrow's impact on agriculture
This tool allowed farmers to quickly and efficiently plant fields by burying the seeds in the furrows within hours instead of days.
Societal changes from the urban revolution
As cities grew and trade further developed, merchants selling the bounty of the agriculture revolution and skilled tradesmen formed a new wealthy middle class that rivaled the nobility.
Factors contributing to the Great Schism in 1054
The separation in geography, culture and language caused division in the Eastern and Western Roman Empires, leading to the Church splitting into Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Catholicism.
Major disagreement during the Great Schism
Both sides greatly disagreed on the issue of papal authority. Since the Pope lived in the Western region, Bishops in the East wanted to have their own decision-making authority.
Outcome of the Great Schism
The Christian Church was divided into two sanctions, Eastern Orthodox and Western Catholicism, after the Patriarch of Constantinople and Pope Leo IX excommunicated each other.
Priests
Working within their designated communities, these individuals performed religious rites and ceremonies, provided sacraments, held mass, maintained church records and collected church taxes.
Cause of the Investiture Conflict
Disagreement between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor regarding who held the authority to appoint positions within the Church.
The Lateran Council that was called by Pope Alexander III to:
Pope Alexander III called the Third Lateran Council in 1179 to condemn the radical Christians in France, the Albigenses and Waldenses who declared the Church was corrupt.
Henry II
The first ruler in the Plantagenet dynasty and very first Angevin king of England ruling from 1154 to 1189 CE. He was a strong monarch with much of France under his control as well.
Changes during the High Middle Ages
Urban cities formed as the population grew, people became more educated and interested in classical culture. They began speaking out against Church corruption and were labeled heretics.
Purpose of the Inquisition
To seek and destroy any accused heretics and Cathars who were against the Church.
Educational changes in the High Middle Ages
The need for literate commoners increased as trade grew and church schools could not keep up with the demand. Guilds helped support the development of secular schools to accommodate this need.
Responsibilities of English Peasants
Peasants were required to pay high taxes and/or rent to land owners and the church. In addition to working the land they rented, they also had to work land belonging to the church for free.
Why papal authority declined in the Late Middle Ages
Internal schisms within the Church regarding who was the rightful pope, corruption in the workings of the church and power struggles with kings and nobility led to a distrust of the papacy.
The longbow and it's importance
Made out of a long piece of wood, this bow helped England win several battles in the Hundred Years' War because it had a long range and was easy to load.
How France defeated England in the Hundred Years' War
Although usually outnumbered by English soldiers, France eventually gained control by using firearms.
Factors contributing to the 14th century peasant revolts
Peasants suffered through Black Death, famine and crop-destroying frosts. This unrest coupled with high taxation and corruption within the Church causing peasant revolts throughout Europe.
Cause of the Hundred Years' War
Edward III, king of England, believed he was next in line to the French throne. France and England went to war over the kingship and ownership of French territories.
Outcome of the Hundred Years' War
Eventually, France defeated England by regaining control over its territories.
Joan of Arc's significance to the Hundred Years' War
Claiming to have visions of French victories from angels and saints, she was able to command troops through several victorious battles.
Black death
Known as 'the plague', this illness was spread by rat fleas and usually resulted in death. Because people lived in crowded cities and did not practice disease prevention, the population declined.
Pope Clement V
This French pope was elected in 1305 and became unpopular in Rome due to his nationality and appointment of French cardinals. He moved the papacy to Avignon, France to avoid conflict.
Dante Alighieri
He was the poet that wrote The Divine Comedy and was exiled from Florence for his political associations with the White Guelphs who opposed the Pope.

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