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Molecular Biology Flashcards

Molecular Biology Flashcards
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Polysaccharide
A kind of sugar that is made up of a large number of smaller units of sugar.
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Trisaccharide
These are big sugars that contain three monosaccharides.
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Disaccharide
A type of sugar that is formed from two single sugars. An example would be sucrose, which is formed from fructose and glucose.
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Monosaccharide
We use this term to refer to simple, single sugars, such as glucose.
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Amino Acid
These are used to build proteins. They include a carboxylic acid group and an amine group.
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Dipeptide
A kind of peptide with two amino acids. This kind of peptide only has one bond.
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Tripeptide
This type of peptide consists of three amino acids that are connected together with two bonds.
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Peptide Bonds
These covalent bonds are formed through the process of dehydration. They join amino acids together by bonding amino groups and carboxylic acid groups to form proteins.
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Proteins
A kind of biological molecule that is formed from amino acids. These molecules control genes, serve as enzymes and provide both structure and energy storage.
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18 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

You can use this set of flashcards as a study aid to review amino acids, dipeptides, tripeptides and proteins. Peptide bonds will also be covered. These cards also focus on carbohydrates, including monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, polysaccharides, cellulose and starch. You'll also be able to work with cards that cover lipids, including steroids and triglycerides. Saturated, unsaturated and trans fats will also be discussed.

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Proteins
A kind of biological molecule that is formed from amino acids. These molecules control genes, serve as enzymes and provide both structure and energy storage.
Peptide Bonds
These covalent bonds are formed through the process of dehydration. They join amino acids together by bonding amino groups and carboxylic acid groups to form proteins.
Tripeptide
This type of peptide consists of three amino acids that are connected together with two bonds.
Dipeptide
A kind of peptide with two amino acids. This kind of peptide only has one bond.
Amino Acid
These are used to build proteins. They include a carboxylic acid group and an amine group.
Monosaccharide
We use this term to refer to simple, single sugars, such as glucose.
Disaccharide
A type of sugar that is formed from two single sugars. An example would be sucrose, which is formed from fructose and glucose.
Trisaccharide
These are big sugars that contain three monosaccharides.
Polysaccharide
A kind of sugar that is made up of a large number of smaller units of sugar.
Carbohydrates
These are organic molecules that we also refer to as sugars. They contain hydrogen, oxygen and carbon.
Cellulose
A carbohydrate that is also called dietary fiber. Humans lack the bacteria to extract energy from this fiber.
Starch
Humans get a lot of energy from this carbohydrate, which is made of the complex sugars amylose and amylopectin.
Lipids
A type of non-polar biological molecule. Fats and steroids are examples of these molecules.
Glycerol Lipids
These lipids aren't based on steroids. Instead, they are formed from glycerol and fatty acids, which are groups of three carboxylic acids.
Saturated Fat
A naturally occurring fat without double bonds. This makes their fatty acid chains very flexible. Butter is an example of a product with this kind of fat.
Unsaturated Fat
A kind of fat that occurs naturally. It has either one double bond or many double bonds. This kind of fat is found in olive oil.
Trans Fat
We synthetically create this kind of fat when we hydrogenate polyunsaturated fats. These are really bad for us to eat.
Steroids
These are lipids that act as chemical messengers. Like other lipids, they are biological and non-polar. Examples include testosterone and estrogen.

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