Psychology in Education Flashcards

Psychology in Education Flashcards
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Trust vs. Mistrust Stage in Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
The 1st stage of psychosocial development. Infants should develop a sense of trust with their caregiver at this stage.
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Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Stage in Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

This involves learning to feel confident and secure in decisions. Children with no opportunity to make choices can be negatively impacted at this stage. Toilet training plays a large role here.

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Industry vs. Inferiority Stage in Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Children at this stage observe and learn. They begin this stage in elementary school and need their teachers to reinforce any initiatives they take.
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Identity vs. Role Confusion Stage in Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
At this stage of psychosocial development, peer interactions are very important and children should develop a sense of themselves as people.
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Stages 5-8 of Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Identity vs. role confusion

Intimacy vs. isolation

Generativity vs. stagnation

Integrity vs. despair

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Stages 1-4 of Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Trust vs. mistrust

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

Initiative vs. guilt

Industry vs. inferiority

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Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
A theory that explains how people develop an identity. It asserts that there's a sequence to the steps, people grow more involved with others at each step and each stage involves a life task.
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Applying / Application Level of Bloom's Taxonomy
Students who have mastered this level of Bloom's taxonomy can take what they learned in one situation and understand how it is relevant to other situations.
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Remembering / Knowledge Level of Bloom's Taxonomy
The 1st level of Bloom's taxonomy. It deals with being able to recall facts or information you have learned.
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Evaluating / Evaluation Level of Bloom's Taxonomy
Students working at this level on Bloom's taxonomy will focus on making decisions and stating their opinions. They should be able to agree or disagree with a statement and support their argument.
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Understanding / Comprehension Level of Bloom's Taxonomy

A level in Bloom's taxonomy that requires students to be able to explain the answers to questions about what they've learned in their own words.

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Creating / Synthesis Level of Bloom's Taxonomy
The highest level of learning in Bloom's taxonomy. Student develop new ideas from older ones and use well-developed cognitive abilities. They often need help from teachers to reach this level.
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Analyzing / Analysis Level of Bloom's Taxonomy
This level of Bloom's taxonomy is characterized by the ability to compare and contrast facts and information. Individuals at this level also understand patterns.
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Mastery Learning
An aspect of Bloom's taxonomy that states that students have to fully master lower level skills before they work on higher level skills.
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Bloom's Taxonomy
Teachers often use this leveled listing of cognitive skills to measure student achievement and create assessments to ensure students understand their learning objectives.
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Edward Thorndike's Law of Effect

This law states that students are more likely to repeat an action if they're rewarded for it and less likely to do it again if they're punished. It influenced B.F. Skinner and behaviorism.

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Edward Thorndike
He provided the foundation for behavioral psychology. He was interested in how rewards or punishments, such as receiving an F for doing something bad in class, influenced behavior.
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B. F. Skinner

This psychologist believed that learning involved changing behaviors. His work influenced the behavioral modification theory.

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How Skinner's principles of learning can be applied in the classroom
These principles can be used in classrooms by punishing unruly students, providing lots of praise and giving rewards to students who aren't motivated.
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Alfred Binet
A psychologist who created an intelligence test to locate students who were at risk, gauge the mental age of students and limit chances for teacher bias to influence how students were evaluated.
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48 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

You can review information about the cognitive developmental theories developed by Lev Vygotsky, Alfred Binet, B. F. Skinner, Erik Erikson, Howard Gardner, Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner with these flashcards. You can also focus on Bloom's taxonomy and educational applications of behavioral theory.

Front
Back
Alfred Binet
A psychologist who created an intelligence test to locate students who were at risk, gauge the mental age of students and limit chances for teacher bias to influence how students were evaluated.
How Skinner's principles of learning can be applied in the classroom
These principles can be used in classrooms by punishing unruly students, providing lots of praise and giving rewards to students who aren't motivated.
B. F. Skinner

This psychologist believed that learning involved changing behaviors. His work influenced the behavioral modification theory.

Edward Thorndike
He provided the foundation for behavioral psychology. He was interested in how rewards or punishments, such as receiving an F for doing something bad in class, influenced behavior.
Edward Thorndike's Law of Effect

This law states that students are more likely to repeat an action if they're rewarded for it and less likely to do it again if they're punished. It influenced B.F. Skinner and behaviorism.

Bloom's Taxonomy
Teachers often use this leveled listing of cognitive skills to measure student achievement and create assessments to ensure students understand their learning objectives.
Mastery Learning
An aspect of Bloom's taxonomy that states that students have to fully master lower level skills before they work on higher level skills.
Analyzing / Analysis Level of Bloom's Taxonomy
This level of Bloom's taxonomy is characterized by the ability to compare and contrast facts and information. Individuals at this level also understand patterns.
Creating / Synthesis Level of Bloom's Taxonomy
The highest level of learning in Bloom's taxonomy. Student develop new ideas from older ones and use well-developed cognitive abilities. They often need help from teachers to reach this level.
Understanding / Comprehension Level of Bloom's Taxonomy

A level in Bloom's taxonomy that requires students to be able to explain the answers to questions about what they've learned in their own words.

Evaluating / Evaluation Level of Bloom's Taxonomy
Students working at this level on Bloom's taxonomy will focus on making decisions and stating their opinions. They should be able to agree or disagree with a statement and support their argument.
Remembering / Knowledge Level of Bloom's Taxonomy
The 1st level of Bloom's taxonomy. It deals with being able to recall facts or information you have learned.
Applying / Application Level of Bloom's Taxonomy
Students who have mastered this level of Bloom's taxonomy can take what they learned in one situation and understand how it is relevant to other situations.
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
A theory that explains how people develop an identity. It asserts that there's a sequence to the steps, people grow more involved with others at each step and each stage involves a life task.
Stages 1-4 of Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Trust vs. mistrust

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

Initiative vs. guilt

Industry vs. inferiority

Stages 5-8 of Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Identity vs. role confusion

Intimacy vs. isolation

Generativity vs. stagnation

Integrity vs. despair

Identity vs. Role Confusion Stage in Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
At this stage of psychosocial development, peer interactions are very important and children should develop a sense of themselves as people.
Industry vs. Inferiority Stage in Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Children at this stage observe and learn. They begin this stage in elementary school and need their teachers to reinforce any initiatives they take.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Stage in Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

This involves learning to feel confident and secure in decisions. Children with no opportunity to make choices can be negatively impacted at this stage. Toilet training plays a large role here.

Trust vs. Mistrust Stage in Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
The 1st stage of psychosocial development. Infants should develop a sense of trust with their caregiver at this stage.
Initiative vs. Guilt Stage in Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
During this stage of psychosocial development a child's personality forms and they should be encouraged to act independently.
Intimacy vs. Isolation Stage in Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Individuals at this psychosocial stage have reached adulthood and are concerned with forming intimate relationships.
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
This theory states that intelligence can exist in different areas. Teachers can incorporate this theory in the classroom by encouraging group work and teaching material in different ways.
Linguistic Intelligence in the Theory of Multiple Intelligences
This kind of intelligence is demonstrated when people show skills with reading, writing or learning other languages.
Interpersonal Intelligence in the Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Individuals possess this kind of intelligence if they're good at dealing with other people.
Intrapersonal Intelligence in the Theory of Multiple Intelligences
You show this kind of intelligence when you understand yourself and your own thoughts.
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence in the Theory of Multiple Intelligences

People who have the ability to control their body movements have this kind of intelligence. Dancers and sports stars would be examples.

Howard Gardner
This psychologist theorized that there were different kinds of intelligence, including interpersonal intelligence, which allows people to relate to the emotional needs of others.
Formal Operational Thinking Stage of Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Children who have reached this stage of cognitive development are able to work on cause and effect problems that include multiple factors.
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
This theory proposes that children move through several stages of cognitive development as they grow. These stages are influenced by experiences and maturity.
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor intelligence stage

Preoperational thinking stage

Concrete operational stage

Formal operational thinking stage

Bruner's Theory of Development
This theory of development states that people develop three modes of representation. It displays similarities to the philosophy of constructivism.
Jerome Bruner
This cognitive psychologists created a theory of development and thought that educational should support a student's intellectual development.
The Iconic Stage of Representation in Bruner's Theory of Development
According to Bruner, children at this stage of development would be able to form mental pictures of objects.
Vygotsky's Cultural-Historical Cognitive Development Theory

A theory on cognitive development that holds that if children get help grasping a concept, such as putting blocks in holes, they will be able to complete the task on their own.

Lev Vygotsky
He development a cognitive development theory that focuses on how important social interactions, such as those between a parent and child, and culture are to the growth of cognitive abilities.
Actual Development in Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theory
This refers to the tasks children can perform completely on their own.
Level of Potential Development in Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theory
This represents the most difficult task a child can perform if he or she receives assistance. Teachers are important because they can offer this help.
Pre-Intellectual Speech in Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theory
The 1st stage of speech development. This stage occurs when infants cry, babble, laugh or gesture.
Egocentric Speech in Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theory
A type of speech used by children around the ages of 3-7 that involves monologues and speak directed towards the self.
Autonomous Speech in Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theory
Children at this level of speech development will make up their own words.
Communicative Speech in Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theory

This kind of speech is used by young children when they want to talk to other people. It involves simple, short sentences like, 'I want drink.'

Naïve Psychology in Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theory
Children who have reached this level of speech development can understand that objects have specific names that refer to them.
Zone of Proximal Development in Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theory

An aspect of the cognitive development theory created by Vygotsky that refers to skills children can perform only with assistance, sometimes from a parent.

Jerome Bruner's Stages of Cognitive Representation

Enactive (Birth to One Year)

Iconic (One to Six Years)

Symbolic Representation (Seven Years and Up)

Alfred Binet's Intelligence Test

An assessment that gauges a student's mental age. This was the first intelligence test created. It was made in an attempt to do away with teacher bias to help find students who needed help.

Order of Bloom's Taxonomy

Students progress from bottom to top

Spatial Intelligence in the Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Students show this type of intelligence when they grasp the way things move or connect in three dimensions. Sculptors usually have high levels of this.

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