Reasoning & Rhetorical Proof Flashcards

Reasoning & Rhetorical Proof Flashcards
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Using inductive reasoning in a speech
A speaker decides to make an argument about something, then accumulates a lot of information that will supplement and propel the argument they want to make.
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Applying inductive reasoning
To do this, you review information to identify what it points to and draw conclusions based on whether there is a lot of information pointing to one thing.
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Applying deductive reasoning
To do this, you review several pieces of true information and then reach a valid conclusion based on what the majority of the points appear to identify.
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Burden of proof
This is a duty a speaker has when he or she wants listeners to form different views about something. The speaker has to present information that will convince listeners.
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Cognitive dissonance
This can happen when information a speaker has to discuss includes concepts that are not in keeping with his or her personal beliefs.
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Selective exposure theory
This makes listeners form an opinion of a speech because of their personal preferences. For example, hearing about concepts they are interested in may give them a good feeling about the speech.
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Data in the Toulmin model
In this model, data creates the groundwork for the argument and provides information to supplement the points being made.
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Making an argument using logos
Using this method, a speaker uses reasoning and logic and incorporates information taken from reports and studies to ensure that the information makes sense to listeners.
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Making an argument using pathos
This is information that will stir up feelings in the audience members and can be used when a speaker doesn't have enough information to describe circumstances that will back up an argument.
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Making an argument using ethos
This is the method used to help convince others of something by referring to documents that have been verified and people who are specialists on the matter.
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Qualifier
These are statements that add an explanation for the outcome of the argument being made and are normally included to explain why or when a benefit will be given.
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Warrant
This method draws a relationship between the argument being made and the specific pieces of information that support the argument by adding sentences to explain why the argument is a good one.
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Making a valid argument in a speech
To do this, the speaker has to describe the correlation between events or circumstances being discussed and reference research that is credible and specific.
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Credibility position
This is a comment made very early on in the speech that tells the audience about your education and training and that you are equipped to present the material.
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Terminal credibility
This is the credibility that a speaker can earn or lose while delivering a speech. It describes the thoughts or feelings listeners leave with because of the overall experience.
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Flashcard Content Overview

This flashcard set covers what it means to add warrants and qualifiers to a speech as well as how to make sure the topic is presented in a way that is understandable to audience members. Learn about the Toulmin model and how a speaker can include information from research to back up the statements they make during a speech. Additionally, find out more about ethos and pathos and how a speaker can add elements to a speech that stimulate audience members emotionally and mentally.

Front
Back
Terminal credibility
This is the credibility that a speaker can earn or lose while delivering a speech. It describes the thoughts or feelings listeners leave with because of the overall experience.
Credibility position
This is a comment made very early on in the speech that tells the audience about your education and training and that you are equipped to present the material.
Making a valid argument in a speech
To do this, the speaker has to describe the correlation between events or circumstances being discussed and reference research that is credible and specific.
Warrant
This method draws a relationship between the argument being made and the specific pieces of information that support the argument by adding sentences to explain why the argument is a good one.
Qualifier
These are statements that add an explanation for the outcome of the argument being made and are normally included to explain why or when a benefit will be given.
Making an argument using ethos
This is the method used to help convince others of something by referring to documents that have been verified and people who are specialists on the matter.
Making an argument using pathos
This is information that will stir up feelings in the audience members and can be used when a speaker doesn't have enough information to describe circumstances that will back up an argument.
Making an argument using logos
Using this method, a speaker uses reasoning and logic and incorporates information taken from reports and studies to ensure that the information makes sense to listeners.
Data in the Toulmin model
In this model, data creates the groundwork for the argument and provides information to supplement the points being made.
Selective exposure theory
This makes listeners form an opinion of a speech because of their personal preferences. For example, hearing about concepts they are interested in may give them a good feeling about the speech.
Cognitive dissonance
This can happen when information a speaker has to discuss includes concepts that are not in keeping with his or her personal beliefs.
Burden of proof
This is a duty a speaker has when he or she wants listeners to form different views about something. The speaker has to present information that will convince listeners.
Applying deductive reasoning
To do this, you review several pieces of true information and then reach a valid conclusion based on what the majority of the points appear to identify.
Applying inductive reasoning
To do this, you review information to identify what it points to and draw conclusions based on whether there is a lot of information pointing to one thing.
Using inductive reasoning in a speech
A speaker decides to make an argument about something, then accumulates a lot of information that will supplement and propel the argument they want to make.
Appeal to tradition fallacy
This type of fallacy presents an argument based on an opinion of something that many people have had for years so it should not be questioned or disputed.
Red herring fallacy
This type of fallacy is used when a speaker makes a comment that will push the audience to think about something other than the topic being discussed.
Ad hominem fallacy
A speaker using this type of logical fallacy, common in politics, makes negative statements targeted at something about a person or company. Comments often include put downs and attacks.
False dilemma fallacy
This method introduces two things that can be used to address a problem, and listeners are asked to decide which one they would apply.
Burden of proof fallacy
To apply this type of fallacy, one speaker makes comments forcing the other speaker to talk about an issue and disprove the original speaker's statement.
Hasty generalization
This is a statement where someone draws information from a series of events and creates an incorrect conclusion about a matter.
Logical fallacy
This happens when someone comes to a conclusion for the wrong reason or because he or she applied thoughts or concepts that led to the wrong conclusion.
Primacy
This happens when someone is able to recall something heard during the first portion of a talk but has a hard time recalling the rest of what he or she heard.
Strategies of rhetoric / modes of persuasion

Ethos (credibility)

Pathos (emotion)

Logos (logic)

Bandwagon fallacy
This type of conditional argument isn't strong because it is primarily based on the knowledge that something could happen because of how many times it has happened in the past.
Slippery slope fallacy
This type of conditional fallacy argues against something because it is based on the possibility that a number of negative occurrences may result.
Recency
This refers to what we remember after reading something and describes our ability to remember portions of the end of something we recently reviewed.
Chunking
This is the process of organizing and then grouping the information you want to discuss in your speech.
Straw man fallacy
This type of fallacy involves one person attacking the argument of a rival by twisting the rival's argument to make it appear to be ineffective to the listeners.
Propositional logic
This is the logic that is based on a number of logical conclusions that are combined to reach and create a final logical statement.

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