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Research Methods & Ethics Flashcards

Research Methods & Ethics Flashcards
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Naturally-occurring groups
These types of groups appear in quasi-experiments, where they are used instead of groups purposely selected by the researcher
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Survey study
A type of research where participants are given a set of questions to answer
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Field study
A type of experimentation where researchers observe people in their natural habitat
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Open vs. closed access
In ethnography, open access is when the researcher has complete access to data and the population without permission, while closed access requires permission from the population for certain areas
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Ethnography
The qualitative research study of cultures and groups from the perspective of those being studied
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Control group
The natural or baseline group in an experiment who does not experience any changes from the experimenter
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Experimental group
The group in an experiment that receives some kind of change to their environment inside the experiment
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Longitudinal research
The type of research that is carried out over a longer period of time, with multiple sessions included, to study a group of people
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Cross-sectional research
Studying a group of people for just a single time, relegated to one session
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ANOVA
Stands for 'analysis of variance,' and refers to a study of average scores among three or more groups to determine the differences
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Correlation
A statistic explaining whether or not there is a relationship between two given variables in an experiment (related to the idea of a cause and effect relationship)
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Internal validity
This establishes that the cause-and-effect relationship exists in an experiment, and that no explanation is currently in place
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Bias
Often found in qualitative research, this results from the collection of subjective data due to the personal involvement on the part of the researcher.
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Independent variable
The variable which is directly controlled by the experimenter, and the variable which results in the creation of two groups in the study
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Quasi-experiments
An experiment involving groups not originally created by the experimenter; the groups simply occurred naturally
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31 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

Once you get started with this set of flashcards, you can dive into topics like open vs. closed access, field studies, and the advantages of various approaches to research. You can also compare qualitative and quantitative research, along with the concepts of validity and reliability.

Front
Back
Quasi-experiments
An experiment involving groups not originally created by the experimenter; the groups simply occurred naturally
Independent variable
The variable which is directly controlled by the experimenter, and the variable which results in the creation of two groups in the study
Bias
Often found in qualitative research, this results from the collection of subjective data due to the personal involvement on the part of the researcher.
Internal validity
This establishes that the cause-and-effect relationship exists in an experiment, and that no explanation is currently in place
Correlation
A statistic explaining whether or not there is a relationship between two given variables in an experiment (related to the idea of a cause and effect relationship)
ANOVA
Stands for 'analysis of variance,' and refers to a study of average scores among three or more groups to determine the differences
Cross-sectional research
Studying a group of people for just a single time, relegated to one session
Longitudinal research
The type of research that is carried out over a longer period of time, with multiple sessions included, to study a group of people
Experimental group
The group in an experiment that receives some kind of change to their environment inside the experiment
Control group
The natural or baseline group in an experiment who does not experience any changes from the experimenter
Ethnography
The qualitative research study of cultures and groups from the perspective of those being studied
Open vs. closed access
In ethnography, open access is when the researcher has complete access to data and the population without permission, while closed access requires permission from the population for certain areas
Field study
A type of experimentation where researchers observe people in their natural habitat
Survey study
A type of research where participants are given a set of questions to answer
Naturally-occurring groups
These types of groups appear in quasi-experiments, where they are used instead of groups purposely selected by the researcher
Advantages of cross-sectional study
Cross-sectional research is easier and less expensive than longitudinal, and also makes the process of getting a group together simple
What quantitative research could tell you in a study about men vs. women jaywalking
In this example, predictions can be made about the amount of men who would jaywalk vs. the amount of women, but no determination can be made about social phenomena.
What qualitative research could tell you in a study about men vs. women jaywalking
This kind of research could explain why certain people commit jaywalking while others don't, instead of simply giving mathematical information that says they do so.
An advantage of a case study
Case studies can result in rich, in-depth and detailed information on a particular subject.
An advantage of a field study
Field studies allow you to observe natural behaviors, as if the research were happening without your presence
Advantages of a survey study
Surveys are easy, cheap, and it is very simple to simply ask people to fill out a survey.
Research with experiments based on numerical data to answer questions with statistics
Quantitative research is used to answer numerical questions.
Research with experiments based on non-numerical data to ask questions about behavior
Qualitative research is used to answer questions involving situations that cannot apply numerical data to observations
Informed consent form
A paper that explains the details of an experiment to the participant who receives the form
The American Psychological Association
The national board responsible for the creation of ethics standards in psychology studies.
Reliable across time
This phrase refers to whether a researcher will get the same results when performing the same study in a different time period
Validity
A measurement of the accuracy of the results of a given study
Reliability
Measuring the consistency of scores in a study or studies over a period of time
External validity
Results that come from a sample of participants in a study will be the same if a sample from outside the study is also taken
Ecological validity
When results bear meaning in the lives of everyday people
Reliable across samples
Reliability that extends to groups of people participating in the study

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