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SAT Biology: Cell Biology Flashcards

SAT Biology: Cell Biology Flashcards
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Pinocytosis
Equivalent to cellular drinking; the cell membrane is pinched inward to bring liquid into the cell
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Phagocytosis
Equivalent to cellular eating; Cells engulf large molecules often for food
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Endocytosis
Bringing substances into a cell by folding the cell membrane inward to form vesicles
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Antiport
Type of transport protein that move two substances in opposite directions; An example would be the sodium-potassium pump
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Active Transport
Moving a molecule against its concentration gradient (from low to high concentration); The process requires energy and is commonly used to make stores of chemical energy that can be used to do other processes in the cell
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Osmosis
The passive diffusion of water molecules through a membrane
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Facilitated Diffusion
Using proteins in the membrane to transport molecules across the lipid bilayer that would not easily be able to do so otherwise, such as large molecules; Still a form of passive diffusion that goes down a concentration gradient and does not require energy.
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Passive transport
Diffusion from high concentration to low concentration across a biological membrane; Does not require energy
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Diffusion
Movement down a concentration gradient, meaning moving from an area of high concentration to low concentration towards equal concentrations; This is passive and does not require energy
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Concentration gradient
Difference between the amount of solute in one area compared to another; Concentration gradients between the inside and outside of the cell will determine the direction of movement of certain solutes
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Peripheral proteins
Those protein molecules that are attached to the outside of the lipid bilayer, and project either into the cell or into the outer environment
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Integral proteins
Proteins that are attached structurally into the middle of the lipid bilayer
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Lipid molecule that helps to maintain membrane fluidity, particularly by preventing freezing
Cholesterol
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This description of the structure of the cellular membrane; describes the fluid movement of phospholipid molecules and the attached proteins
Fluid Mosaic Model
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Composed of a bilayer of phospholipid molecules; The membrane is selectively permeable, meaning it allows certain substances into and out of the cell.
Cell membrane
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Molecule composed of a phosphate group, which is hydrophilic, and lipid, which is hydrophobic; bilayer of these molecules make up the cell membrane
Phospholipid
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Smallest unit of life that composes all living organisms
Cells
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Hydrophobic
Means 'water fearing'; substances that do not mix well with water, such as salad oil
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Hydrophilic
Describes substances that are compatible with water; means 'water loving'
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38 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

This set of cards can be used for a broad overview of Cellular Biology, including organelles and their function. These cards would be ideal to help review the concepts of cells and organelles for the Biology SAT subject test.

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Hydrophilic
Describes substances that are compatible with water; means 'water loving'
Hydrophobic
Means 'water fearing'; substances that do not mix well with water, such as salad oil
Smallest unit of life that composes all living organisms
Cells
Molecule composed of a phosphate group, which is hydrophilic, and lipid, which is hydrophobic; bilayer of these molecules make up the cell membrane
Phospholipid
Composed of a bilayer of phospholipid molecules; The membrane is selectively permeable, meaning it allows certain substances into and out of the cell.
Cell membrane
This description of the structure of the cellular membrane; describes the fluid movement of phospholipid molecules and the attached proteins
Fluid Mosaic Model
Lipid molecule that helps to maintain membrane fluidity, particularly by preventing freezing
Cholesterol
Integral proteins
Proteins that are attached structurally into the middle of the lipid bilayer
Peripheral proteins
Those protein molecules that are attached to the outside of the lipid bilayer, and project either into the cell or into the outer environment
Concentration gradient
Difference between the amount of solute in one area compared to another; Concentration gradients between the inside and outside of the cell will determine the direction of movement of certain solutes
Diffusion
Movement down a concentration gradient, meaning moving from an area of high concentration to low concentration towards equal concentrations; This is passive and does not require energy
Passive transport
Diffusion from high concentration to low concentration across a biological membrane; Does not require energy
Facilitated Diffusion
Using proteins in the membrane to transport molecules across the lipid bilayer that would not easily be able to do so otherwise, such as large molecules; Still a form of passive diffusion that goes down a concentration gradient and does not require energy.
Osmosis
The passive diffusion of water molecules through a membrane
Active Transport
Moving a molecule against its concentration gradient (from low to high concentration); The process requires energy and is commonly used to make stores of chemical energy that can be used to do other processes in the cell
Antiport
Type of transport protein that move two substances in opposite directions; An example would be the sodium-potassium pump
Endocytosis
Bringing substances into a cell by folding the cell membrane inward to form vesicles
Phagocytosis
Equivalent to cellular eating; Cells engulf large molecules often for food
Pinocytosis
Equivalent to cellular drinking; the cell membrane is pinched inward to bring liquid into the cell
Lysosomes
Organelles which contain digestive enzymes that break down substances stored in vesicles
Exocytosis
Removing substances from a cell by having the vesicle fuse with the cell membrane, emptying the contents into the surrounding environment
Where genetic material is found in eukaryotic cells; surrounded by a nuclear membrane
Nucleus
Central Dogma of Biology
DNA --> RNA --> Protein
Transcription
Process in which DNA is copied into RNA
Translation
Process in which mRNA is used to create proteins
Cellular structure that aids in the process of translation, where the mRNA is changed into a protein
Ribosome
Two types of ribosomes
Free ribosomes, which float in the cytoplasm, and bound ribosomes, which are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Endomembrane System
A group of organelles designed to create, modify, and ship cellular products such as proteins
Smooth ER
Organelle used for lipid synthesis and detoxification
Rough ER
Organelle with studded with ribosomes that aid in protein synthesis and modification
Cytoskeleton
Cellular component composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments; used to give support and shape to the cell and also in cellular movement
Cellular respiration
Process in which cells breakdown food into usable chemical energy
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell; organelle in which cellular respiration takes place
Chloroplasts
Organelle found in plants where photosynthesis occurs (where light energy is converted into organic molecules)
Membrane-bound compartments in eukaryotic cells; used to carry out different cellular functions
Organelles
Eukaryotic Cells
Cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Prokaryotic Cells
Cells that do not have a nucleus or organelles
A particle (not a cell) that contains protein and genetic material which uses other cells to reproduce
Virus

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