Copyright

SAT Biology: Cell Division Flashcards

SAT Biology: Cell Division Flashcards
1/37 (missed) 0 0
Create Your Account To Continue Studying

As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 79,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed.

Try it risk-free
Try it risk-free for 30 days. Cancel anytime
Already registered? Log in here for access
Mitotic spindle
A microtubule structure assembled during mitosis to relocate chromosomes into the daughter cells.
Got it
Telomere
The end of a chromosome that protects DNA from damage during copying; a portion of non-coding DNA.
Got it
Centromere
The point at which two sister chromatids are attached in a duplicated chromosome; this gives a chromosome an 'X' shaped appearance.
Got it
Homologous chromosomes
Two copies of the same chromosomes found in diploid cells. For example, each human cell has two chromosome #1's.
Got it
Karyotype
The complete set of chromosomes in a cell that are separated into pairs by chromosome length and number.
Got it
Mitosis
The division of a cell into two identical daughter cells, each with their own copy of DNA.
Got it
Cytokinesis
The process in which the cytoplasm of a dividing cell is split to make two new individual cell.
Got it
Chromatids
Duplicate copies of genes that are created before cell division.
Got it
Interphase
A phase when cells are not dividing.
Got it
Cell cycle
Events that cells undergo throughout their lifespan; this includes events needed for division.
Got it
Gene
A unit of inheritance; a sequence of DNA that codes for a specific protein.
Got it
Histones
Proteins used to spool DNA into chromosomes; used in organizing the DNA.
Got it
DNA
The genetic information of a cell.
Got it
Diploid
Having two full sets of chromosomes; often abbreviated 2n.
Got it
Gametes
Sex cells used for reproduction; in humans, these cells are eggs and sperm and consist of 23 chromosomes.
Got it
46 chromosomes
The number of chromosomes in the human genome; A copy of each of these chromosomes is found in every cell except gametes.
Got it
Chromosomes
Organized packages of DNA and proteins; will vary in number depending on the organism.
Got it
Genome
The entirety of DNA in an organism's cell.
Got it
37 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

This flashcard set can be used to review the key concepts of cell division as part of a review for the SAT subject test in Biology. These cards cover the key features of chromosomal DNA, mitosis, and meiosis.

Front
Back
Genome
The entirety of DNA in an organism's cell.
Chromosomes
Organized packages of DNA and proteins; will vary in number depending on the organism.
46 chromosomes
The number of chromosomes in the human genome; A copy of each of these chromosomes is found in every cell except gametes.
Gametes
Sex cells used for reproduction; in humans, these cells are eggs and sperm and consist of 23 chromosomes.
Diploid
Having two full sets of chromosomes; often abbreviated 2n.
DNA
The genetic information of a cell.
Histones
Proteins used to spool DNA into chromosomes; used in organizing the DNA.
Gene
A unit of inheritance; a sequence of DNA that codes for a specific protein.
Cell cycle
Events that cells undergo throughout their lifespan; this includes events needed for division.
Interphase
A phase when cells are not dividing.
Chromatids
Duplicate copies of genes that are created before cell division.
Cytokinesis
The process in which the cytoplasm of a dividing cell is split to make two new individual cell.
Mitosis
The division of a cell into two identical daughter cells, each with their own copy of DNA.
Karyotype
The complete set of chromosomes in a cell that are separated into pairs by chromosome length and number.
Homologous chromosomes
Two copies of the same chromosomes found in diploid cells. For example, each human cell has two chromosome #1's.
Centromere
The point at which two sister chromatids are attached in a duplicated chromosome; this gives a chromosome an 'X' shaped appearance.
Telomere
The end of a chromosome that protects DNA from damage during copying; a portion of non-coding DNA.
Mitotic spindle
A microtubule structure assembled during mitosis to relocate chromosomes into the daughter cells.
Centrosome
An organelle that organizes the microtubules into the mitotic spindle during cell division.
5 phases of mitosis
Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Prophase
The phase where chromosomes condense and the mitotic spindle begins to form.
Metaphase
The phase where chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
Anaphase
The phase where sister chromatids are pulled apart by the microtubules to ensure that each daughter cell gets only one copy of DNA.
Telophase
During this phase, the nuclear envelop reforms and the chromosomes begin to relax.
Contractile ring
Actin filaments that are used to separate dividing animal cells into two daughter cells during cytokinesis.
Cell plate
A structure formed in plant cells during cytokinesis that will eventually form the cell wall of the new daughter cells.
Asexual reproduction
Reproduction done by a single parent that produces two identical offspring using the process of mitosis.
Sexual reproduction
The process in which two parents contribute DNA to offspring using gametes; produces a genetically unique offspring.
Gamete
A haploid sex cell containing one copy of DNA that is used during sexual reproduction; created via meiosis. Eggs and sperm are examples of gametes.
Meiosis
The process which creates gametes and reduces the chromosomal number by half to create haploid cells; consists of two divisions: Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
Homologous recombination or crossing over
A process which increases genetic diversity by exchanging genes between homologous chromosomes.
Meiosis I
The first division in meiosis where homologous chromosomes are split into different daughter cells.
Meiosis II
The second division in meiosis where two haploid cells with duplicated chromosomes becomes four genetically different daughter cells.
Nondisjunction
The failure of chromosomes to separate correctly during mitosis or meiosis which results in a cell with too many or too few chromosomes.
Aneuploidy
Cells with an incorrect number of chromosomes due to a nondisjunction during cellular division.
Binary fission
A process of asexual reproduction in which one cell divides into two daughter cells, commonly seen in bacteria cells.
Prometaphase
The second phase of mitosis in which chromosomes begin to attach to the mitotic spindle and start to move towards the middle of the cell.

To unlock this flashcard set you must be a Study.com Member.
Create your account

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use Study.com

Become a Study.com member and start learning now.
Become a Member

Already a member? Log In

Support