SAT Biology: Plant Biology Flashcards

SAT Biology: Plant Biology Flashcards
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Nodes
The parts on a plant where you can find leaves.
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Stem: Vascular Tissue
A specialized kind of tissue, made of xylem and phloem, found in some plants that can carry both nutrients and water.
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Ground Tissue: Sclerenchyma
This ground tissue offers the stem of a plant protection and support.
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Ground Tissue: Collenchyma
Plants use this kind of ground tissue as a support for their roots and stem when they are young.
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Ground Tissue: Parenchyma
A kind of ground tissue that can store water and food for the plant.
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Stem: Ground Tissue
This part of the stem surrounds the plant's vascular tissue. It comes in three different types.
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Stem: Epidermis
The outer layer of the plant's stem that has cells coated in wax. This part of the stem protects the plant.
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Stem: Meristem
This tissue is found in plant stems. Cells can divide in this tissue, so this is where stem growth occurs. There are two kinds: apical is found at the stem's tip and lateral surrounds the stem.
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Stem
A plant's support system. Leaves grow from this.
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Plants: Shoot System
The system of plants that contains all structures found above the ground, including the buds, stems, leaves, flowers and any potential fruits.
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Angiosperms: Dicot
This type of flowering plant produces seeds with two seed leaves. We consider roses an example of this type of plant.
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Angiosperms: Monocot
A type of plant that flowers and that has only one seed leaf. Corn is an example of this kind of plant.
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Cotyledon
Scientists use this term to refer to a seed leaf, or the leaf contained in a plant's seed that is also the plant's first leaf.
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Plants: Angiosperm
We use this term to refer to plants that produce flowers, which can help attract organisms that assist in pollination. There are different categories for this kind of plant.
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Plants: Gymnosperm
These plants don't have flowers, but they do produce seeds. An example would be evergreen trees.
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Plants: Nonvascular
Plants that don't contain xylem or phloem, meaning they can't transport water. Moss is an example of this kind of plant.
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Plants: Vascular
These are plants that have special tissue that can transport water. This tissue comes in two kinds. Xylem moves water and minerals; phloem moves food.
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Cell Wall
A component of plant cells. It surrounds the cell, providing a rigid layer of protection. It is made of cellulose.
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Eukaryotic
A type of cell that contains organelles that are membrane bound and have a nucleus. Plants have these cells.
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Photosynthesis
Plants use this process to change energy from light to chemical energy that they can use. It involves transforming water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen.
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65 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

This set of flashcards can help you review the different parts of a plant's stems, leaves, flowers and roots. You'll be able to go over plant hormones and the life cycles of different kinds of plants. The process of photosynthesis will also be considered by this set.

Front
Back
Photosynthesis
Plants use this process to change energy from light to chemical energy that they can use. It involves transforming water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen.
Eukaryotic
A type of cell that contains organelles that are membrane bound and have a nucleus. Plants have these cells.
Cell Wall
A component of plant cells. It surrounds the cell, providing a rigid layer of protection. It is made of cellulose.
Plants: Vascular
These are plants that have special tissue that can transport water. This tissue comes in two kinds. Xylem moves water and minerals; phloem moves food.
Plants: Nonvascular
Plants that don't contain xylem or phloem, meaning they can't transport water. Moss is an example of this kind of plant.
Plants: Gymnosperm
These plants don't have flowers, but they do produce seeds. An example would be evergreen trees.
Plants: Angiosperm
We use this term to refer to plants that produce flowers, which can help attract organisms that assist in pollination. There are different categories for this kind of plant.
Cotyledon
Scientists use this term to refer to a seed leaf, or the leaf contained in a plant's seed that is also the plant's first leaf.
Angiosperms: Monocot
A type of plant that flowers and that has only one seed leaf. Corn is an example of this kind of plant.
Angiosperms: Dicot
This type of flowering plant produces seeds with two seed leaves. We consider roses an example of this type of plant.
Plants: Shoot System
The system of plants that contains all structures found above the ground, including the buds, stems, leaves, flowers and any potential fruits.
Stem
A plant's support system. Leaves grow from this.
Stem: Meristem
This tissue is found in plant stems. Cells can divide in this tissue, so this is where stem growth occurs. There are two kinds: apical is found at the stem's tip and lateral surrounds the stem.
Stem: Epidermis
The outer layer of the plant's stem that has cells coated in wax. This part of the stem protects the plant.
Stem: Ground Tissue
This part of the stem surrounds the plant's vascular tissue. It comes in three different types.
Ground Tissue: Parenchyma
A kind of ground tissue that can store water and food for the plant.
Ground Tissue: Collenchyma
Plants use this kind of ground tissue as a support for their roots and stem when they are young.
Ground Tissue: Sclerenchyma
This ground tissue offers the stem of a plant protection and support.
Stem: Vascular Tissue
A specialized kind of tissue, made of xylem and phloem, found in some plants that can carry both nutrients and water.
Nodes
The parts on a plant where you can find leaves.
Internodes
On a plant stem, this is the area between leaves.
Plant Buds: Types

Terminal: special buds found at the end of a plant's stem

Lateral: buds that are found on the side area of a plant's stem

Accessory: a type of bud that grows in pairs near lateral or terminal buds

Apical Meristem: Tissues Produced

Protoderm - the tissue that turns into the epidermis

Ground meristem - turns into ground tissue

Procambium - develops into vascular tissue

Primary Growth
This kind of plant growth takes place in the apical meristem of a plant. It makes plants longer.
Secondary Growth
A type of plant growth that occurs in a plant's lateral meristem. It makes plants wider and doesn't occur in monocots.
Lateral Meristem: Tissues Produced

Vascular cambium - this produces phloem and xylem

Cork cambium - produces cork that can replace a stem's epidermis

Leaf: Cuticle
The portion of the leaf that protects it and stops the loss of water. It has a waxy feel.
Leaf: Epidermis
This part of the leaf is under the cuticle. It offers extra protection and further limits the loss of water.
Leaf: Palisade Layer
A section of a leaf below the upper epidermis that is full of chloroplasts, a structure that is involved in photosynthesis. This is part of the mesophyll, along with the spongy layer.
Leaf: Spongy Layer
There are a lot of cells that are loosely packed in this part of a leaf. The spaces between these cells allows for the exchange of gases.
Leaf: Lower Epidermis
The bottom part of a leaf. It contains pores called stomata and guard cells that can open and close these pores.
Roots
This part of the plant can play several roles. It may prove support for plants. It may also store food or water for the rest of the plant.
Root: Root Cap
A section of the root found at the very bottom. It offers protection as the root grows and even releases a slimy substance, aiding the movement of roots through the ground.
Root: Epidermis
This protective layer covers the sides of the root. It's also found right under the root cap at the root's bottom. We peel this off of potatoes.
Root: Root Hairs
These are produced by the epidermis of a root to absorb nutrients and water. They increase a root's surface area.
Root: Primary Root Tissue
This part of the root can store food. It is sometimes referred to as a cortex. The end of this is called the endodermis that can't be breached by water.
Root: Vascular Cylinder
The area of the root that has phloem and xylem. This is not always found in the same place in a root. Monocots have this in a ring; dicots have it in a star shape.
Root: Root Meristem
The portion of the root where we can see cell division taking place. It includes a meristematic region where cells divide, an elongation region where the root lengthens and a maturation region.
Root: Pericycle
This layer in the vascular cylinder allows lateral roots to develop.
Phloem
A vascular tissue that moves food in plants. Made of living cells and contains sieve plates with large pores, sieve cells that hook together, sieve tubes in flowering plants and companion cells.
Flowers
The part of an angiosperm plant that has petals. These may be complete, meaning they have all their parts, or incomplete, meaning they lack at least one whorl.
Flower Whorls: Calyx
This is the outermost whorl on a flower. It's used for protection.
Flower Whorls: Corolla
The whorl that contains a plant's petals.
Flower Whorls: Androecium
This whorl contains a flower's male parts. It includes a stamen that is made of filaments and anthers that produce pollen.
Flower Whorls: Gynoecium
A whorl that holds a flower's female parts. The carpel, which holds the ovules, style, stigma and ovary is found here. The stigma receives pollen and the style leads to the ovary.
Pollination
The process that results in pollen being placed on a stigma, allowing the plant to reproduce. It can be achieved by the wind or by animals.
Alternation of Generations
A type of life cycle some plants have that has haploid and diploid stages. This means sometimes a plant has two sets of chromosomes and other times it has one.
Plant Life Cycle: Moss
This non-vascular plant uses alternation of generations in its life cycle. A haploid life stage (a plant) is dominant, and a diploid stage that produces haploid spores that develop into a plant.
Plant Life Cycle: Ferns
A vascular plant that produces no seeds, using spores instead. It starts as a spore in a haploid stage, eventually is fertilized and moves to the dominant diploid stage of its life, as a plant.
Plant Life Cycle: Gymnosperms
These plants have seeds and no flowers. They use the alternation of generations life cycle to produce male and female spores (n), and after fertilization, develop into the diploid stage, a plant.
Plant Life Cycle: Angiosperms
This vascular plant flowers and produces seeds that are protected. It reproduces through the alternation of generation, going through haploid and diploid multicellular stages.
Plant Life Cycle: Asexual Plants
These plants reproduce with only one parent in a process sometimes referred to as vegetative propagation. This makes adapting harder.
Tropism
The movement of a plant in response to a stimulus. This is positive if a plant moves closer to something and negative if it moves away.
Tropism: Variations

Phototropism - movement in reaction to light

Geotropism / Gravitropism - movement in relation to the earth or gravity

Thigmatropism - movement caused by touch

Photoperiodism
A reaction to photoperiods, or how long a day is compared to a night. This influences photoperiodic plants, or plants that only flower when the day is a certain length.
Photoperiodic Plants: Classifications

Short-day - plants that want short periods of light

Long-day - plants that want long periods of light

Day-neutral - plants that don't care how much light they get

Plants: Annuals
These plants will last for a single growing season. You have to replant them if you want them to grow again.
Plants: Biennials
A plant that has a life cycle that last for two years. They will re-seed themselves in the second year to repeat this life cycle.
Plants: Perennials
Plants that survive for multiple seasons of growth. They can live through changes in temperature and water levels.
Plant Hormones: Auxins
These hormones influence plants to grow and promote the differentiation of cells.
Plant Hormones: Cytokinins
A category of plant hormones made in the roots. They can increase growth and reduce the effects of aging on a plant.
Plant Hormones: Gibberellins
The meristems of a plant produce these hormones. They work to keep stem elongation regulated.
Plant Hormones: Ethylene
A kind of hormone used to promote the ripening of fruit in a plant.
Plant Hormones: Abscisic Acid
This hormone limits the growth of plants and makes seed dormant.
Xylem
One of the two kinds of vascular tissue found in plants made of hollow, dead cells called, vessels and tracheids. It is used to move water and minerals that have been dissolved.

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