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SAT Biology: Social Biology Flashcards

SAT Biology: Social Biology Flashcards
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Habituation.
A decrease or termination of a reaction to a stimulus. For example, as animals begin to feel safe near roads, they no longer run when they hear cars.
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Operant conditioning
The process in which a behavior is learned by using reward or punishment-avoidance.
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Classical Conditioning
A behavior that happens when a stimulus is associated with another stimulus that produces a certain reaction. Pavlov used this behavior in his work with dogs.
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Learned behaviors
Behavioral adaptations or changes that occur with learning and new experiences.
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Stereotyped behavior
A behavior that occurs repetitively. In many instances, this occurs due to the presence of a negative feeling: for example, an animal pacing at the zoo.
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Migration
The movement of an organism based on the seasons. Birds flying to warmer weather is a key example of migration.
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Fixed action pattern
A certain sequence of movements and actions that are triggered by a stimulus. For example, a male bird's mating ritual is a fixed action pattern.
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Kinesis
An innate, non-directionally specific movement caused by a stimulus. For example, bugs scattering multi-directionally when a light is turned on is a form of kinesis.
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Taxis
An innate reaction to a stimulus that causes something to move closer to or away from the stimulus. When a lion moves towards movement seen in a bush to hunt, this is taxis.
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Reflex
An innate, unconscious reaction to a stimulus. For example, the body's reflex in response to cold is getting goosebumps.
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Behavior
A reaction to either an internal or external stimulus. There are two main types of behaviors: innate (or instinctual) or learned behaviors.
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23 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

Whether you are preparing for your SAT exam or simply wanting to enhance your knowledge of social biology, this set of flashcards will provide you with a great way to study! Review these cards to dive into the complex world of behavior, population, and more. From insects to humans, social biology impacts living organisms every day; learn more about it and be prepared to see the world in a different way.

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Behavior
A reaction to either an internal or external stimulus. There are two main types of behaviors: innate (or instinctual) or learned behaviors.
Reflex
An innate, unconscious reaction to a stimulus. For example, the body's reflex in response to cold is getting goosebumps.
Taxis
An innate reaction to a stimulus that causes something to move closer to or away from the stimulus. When a lion moves towards movement seen in a bush to hunt, this is taxis.
Kinesis
An innate, non-directionally specific movement caused by a stimulus. For example, bugs scattering multi-directionally when a light is turned on is a form of kinesis.
Fixed action pattern
A certain sequence of movements and actions that are triggered by a stimulus. For example, a male bird's mating ritual is a fixed action pattern.
Migration
The movement of an organism based on the seasons. Birds flying to warmer weather is a key example of migration.
Stereotyped behavior
A behavior that occurs repetitively. In many instances, this occurs due to the presence of a negative feeling: for example, an animal pacing at the zoo.
Learned behaviors
Behavioral adaptations or changes that occur with learning and new experiences.
Classical Conditioning
A behavior that happens when a stimulus is associated with another stimulus that produces a certain reaction. Pavlov used this behavior in his work with dogs.
Operant conditioning
The process in which a behavior is learned by using reward or punishment-avoidance.
Habituation.
A decrease or termination of a reaction to a stimulus. For example, as animals begin to feel safe near roads, they no longer run when they hear cars.
Insight learning
The complex type of learning that occurs when a behavior learned in a previous experience is transferred to a new situation without an opportunity to practice.
Imprinting
A process where an organism learns and follows the behavioral cues of the first moving thing it sees when it's born.
The four main types of behaviors found in social groups.
Altruistic (benefits the receiver, a cost to the performer), Selfish (benefits the performer, negative for the receiver), Cooperative (mutually beneficial), Spiteful (negative for both parties)
Kin selection
A situation in which an organism opts to provide assistance to its relatives to increase the passing on of its traits.
Opportunity cost
The loss of the ability to perform other actions by doing a task.
Caste System
A structure, in which, depending on size or class, specific jobs are assigned.
Individual fitness vs inclusive fitness
Individual fitness occurs when an organism is focused on the its individual health, ability to survive, and reproduction; inclusive fitness looks at the good of the species and its longevity.
Demography
The study of human populations. It focuses on statistics to determine various characteristics of a population.
Theory of demographic transition
Demographers study past population changes and predict future changes using either a four or five stage model, looking at how societal changes impact population.
Carrying capacity
The maximum number of individuals or organisms an environment can sustain and support.
Genetic engineering
The altering of an organism's DNA. An example often occurs in food, which can be changed to grow in various environments or to have specific nutrients added.
Biomedical progress
Advances in technology and medicine such as vaccines, water filtration, and genetic engineering.

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