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Schools of Management Theory Flashcards

Schools of Management Theory Flashcards
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Division of Work in Fayol's 14 Principles of Management
A principle that assert that employees are more efficient when they are able to complete specialized work.
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Gantt Chart
A chart that shows the schedule of a work project from beginning to end.
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Summary Elements of a Gantt Chart
Elements on a Gantt chart that contain multiple terminal elements.
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Terminal Elements of a Gantt Chart
These elements of a work process include all the small tasks that have to be done in order to finish a larger job, such as stripping paint and adding each new coat to paint a car.
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Task and Bonus System

A payment system created by Gantt that paid employees more based on their performance. All workers got base pay while employees who reached performance goals would receive bonuses.

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Business shortcomings noticed by Frederick Taylor

Work processes contained lots of inefficiency

Employees were being underpaid

Employee potential was untapped

Work processes were wasteful

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Time and Motion Studies
These studies were used by Frederick Taylor to figure out the length of time it would ideally take an employee to finish a job if he or she acted in the correct way.
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Frederick Taylor's Four Principles of Scientific Management
This process directs managers to document a precise way for people to work, use scientific principles to hire and train workers, encourage cooperation and divide labor.
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Contingency Approach to Management
A theory of management that believes the needs of businesses change and need to be adapted to. They typically use a business development plan and a disaster recovery plan.
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The Industrial Revolution
This era, started with the increased use of machines that could improve production, led to lower costs for products and a large focus on factory work.
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Classical Management
A management theory that is associated with the Industrial Revolution. This theory was concerned with lowering costs and finding improved ways for employees to complete their work.
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Scientific Management
Managers using this theory would focus on worker productivity on the individual level.
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Administrative Management
A kind of classical management that valued the creation of management processes and principles over the methods used to accomplish work.
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Basis for Job Appointment in Bureaucratic Organizations
Decisions about who will receive a job should be made solely based on employee competence and experience in this kind of organization.
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Manager Relationships in Bureaucratic Organizations
Managers in this type of organization are advised to treat employees fairly while remaining impersonal with them.
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Division of Labor in Bureaucratic Organizations
Organizations using this business model typically have a high degree of work specialization, encouraging employees to work jobs that they are skilled at completing.
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Management in Bureaucratic Organizations
These organizations use set rules and regulations in order to control the way people perform their tasks.
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Hierarchy in Bureaucratic Organizations
Most businesses of this type will have a strict chain of command that is sharply defined so everyone knows who is in charge.
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Max Weber
Part of the bureaucratic school of management, which was very formal, had a chain of command managed by rules, used work specialization, favored impersonal relationships and valued competence.
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Behavioral Management Theory
This management theory focuses less on treating employees like machines and more on considering the needs of employees to improve satisfaction and increase productivity.
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51 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

You can work with these flashcards to review needs theories of management, systems management, operations management, classical management, bureaucratic management and behavioral management. Theorists such as Max Weber, Frederick Taylor, Henry Gantt, Douglas McGregor and Abraham Maslow will also be covered by these flashcards.

Front
Back
Behavioral Management Theory
This management theory focuses less on treating employees like machines and more on considering the needs of employees to improve satisfaction and increase productivity.
Max Weber
Part of the bureaucratic school of management, which was very formal, had a chain of command managed by rules, used work specialization, favored impersonal relationships and valued competence.
Hierarchy in Bureaucratic Organizations
Most businesses of this type will have a strict chain of command that is sharply defined so everyone knows who is in charge.
Management in Bureaucratic Organizations
These organizations use set rules and regulations in order to control the way people perform their tasks.
Division of Labor in Bureaucratic Organizations
Organizations using this business model typically have a high degree of work specialization, encouraging employees to work jobs that they are skilled at completing.
Manager Relationships in Bureaucratic Organizations
Managers in this type of organization are advised to treat employees fairly while remaining impersonal with them.
Basis for Job Appointment in Bureaucratic Organizations
Decisions about who will receive a job should be made solely based on employee competence and experience in this kind of organization.
Administrative Management
A kind of classical management that valued the creation of management processes and principles over the methods used to accomplish work.
Scientific Management
Managers using this theory would focus on worker productivity on the individual level.
Classical Management
A management theory that is associated with the Industrial Revolution. This theory was concerned with lowering costs and finding improved ways for employees to complete their work.
The Industrial Revolution
This era, started with the increased use of machines that could improve production, led to lower costs for products and a large focus on factory work.
Contingency Approach to Management
A theory of management that believes the needs of businesses change and need to be adapted to. They typically use a business development plan and a disaster recovery plan.
Frederick Taylor's Four Principles of Scientific Management
This process directs managers to document a precise way for people to work, use scientific principles to hire and train workers, encourage cooperation and divide labor.
Time and Motion Studies
These studies were used by Frederick Taylor to figure out the length of time it would ideally take an employee to finish a job if he or she acted in the correct way.
Business shortcomings noticed by Frederick Taylor

Work processes contained lots of inefficiency

Employees were being underpaid

Employee potential was untapped

Work processes were wasteful

Task and Bonus System

A payment system created by Gantt that paid employees more based on their performance. All workers got base pay while employees who reached performance goals would receive bonuses.

Terminal Elements of a Gantt Chart
These elements of a work process include all the small tasks that have to be done in order to finish a larger job, such as stripping paint and adding each new coat to paint a car.
Summary Elements of a Gantt Chart
Elements on a Gantt chart that contain multiple terminal elements.
Gantt Chart
A chart that shows the schedule of a work project from beginning to end.
Division of Work in Fayol's 14 Principles of Management
A principle that assert that employees are more efficient when they are able to complete specialized work.
Authority in Fayol's 14 Principles of Management
This principle states that it is the responsibility of managers to assign tasks and ensure that they are both completed and that they achieve the proper results.
Discipline in Fayol's 14 Principles of Management
Fayol used this principle to state that all organizations need some kind of discipline.
Remuneration in Fayol's 14 Principles of Management
This principle focuses on understanding that employees need fair financial and non-financial forms of compensation to be satisfied.
Fayol's 14 Principles of Management
A series of principles that businesses could use to form strengthen their workforce through an organization-wide effort.
Systems Approach to Management
A management theory that looks at different systems that have to work together to function. It isn't concerned with employee motivation.
Quantitative Approach to Management
Managers using this theory will focus on mathematical techniques to complete their jobs.
Materials Planning in Operations Management
An aspect of operations management that involves gathering all the items necessary to complete a process.
Process Planning in Operations Management
Managers completing this portion of operations management will need to set up the processes used to create a product.
Capital Requirements in Operations Management
This part of operations management deals with the machines or buildings necessary to complete production, also called the capital.
Human Capital in Operations Management
This part of operations management involves handling the employees involved in a business process.
Operations Management
In this kind of management employees, materials and capital are taken together to form a product.
Reengineering
A management theory that tries to adjust processes that are already being used to improve customer satisfaction.
Kaizen
A Japanese business philosophy that sees businesses as organisms and values constant improvement even when it isn't required as well as increases to efficiency on a personal level.
Open System in Systems Management Theory
A kind of system to can change based on the environment. Businesses using this system can choose between various suppliers.
Closed System in Systems Management Theory
Businesses using this kind of system have few suppliers and operate independently of their surrounds.
Subsystems in Systems Management
This type of system is a piece of another, larger system.
Synergy in Systems Management Theory
This occurs when all the individual parts of a process are working properly.
Entropy in Systems Management Theory
Processes the experience discord and unpredictability are going through this.
Hawthorne Experiment / Studies
Created to determine how to improve employee productivity, these studies assert that workers are motivated by management interest and rewards for their work.
Effects of the Hawthorne Studies
These studies led to the beginning of the human relations movement and behavioral management theory. They also shifted the understanding of employee motivation.
Abraham Maslow
A theorist who created a pyramid of physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs. He said individuals were motivated to fulfill these needs.
Needs Theories
Theories of this type try of focus on factors internal to people that guide how people behave. These theories work on the assumption that unfulfilled wants drive people.
Physiological Needs in Business
Managers make sure these needs are met by allowing necessary breaks through the day and making sure working conditions are reasonable.
Safety Needs in Business
Employees have these needs fulfilled when they have job security and working conditions that aren't dangerous.
Social Needs in Business
These needs relate to the desire to feel accepted. In business these needs can be met by employee relationships, accessible managers and a healthy balance between life and work.
Esteem Needs in Business
Businesses can fulfill these needs for their employees by ensuring they receive praise, promotions and a increased responsibilities.
Self-Actualization Needs in Business
Allowing employees to help make decisions and giving them autonomy can help meet these needs by reaching their full potential.
Order of needs in Maslow's hierarchy from the bottom to the top

Physiological

Safety

Social

Esteem

Self-actualization

Theory X
Managers who believe in this theory think that their employees only work because they want a paycheck. They think that employees will hate and resist change.
Theory Y
This theory holds that employees understand work is just a part of the day, that they aren't lazy and that they have lots of potential.
Douglas McGregor
This theorist believed there were two kind of managers, Theory X and Theory Y. He thought both could be effective, but that Theory Y managers would do a better job.

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