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Sociology Terms & Flashcards

Sociology Terms & Flashcards
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Industrialization
The process by which a nation's economy changes from an agricultural to an economy based on the manufacturing of goods. The use of technology and external energy allows an increase in production, a decrease in manual labor, and creates new employment sectors.
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Ideology
A system of ideas and beliefs belonging to a particular group which shape individual behaviors and perceptions.
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Gender Stereotype
Generalizations about the characteristic of an individual or group based on gender.
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Exchange Theory
A perspective used to explain social interaction. This theory is based on the idea that people will only help others when the individual benefits outweigh the costs of helping.
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Ethnography
Research based on actual observations of the lifestyle of an individual or group.
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Ethnocentrism
The belief that one's own culture is superior to other cultures.
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Discrimination
Unequal treatment of individuals or groups based on characteristics such as race, religion, sex, or social class.
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Deviance
Behaviors that violate social norms.
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Class Conflict
The tension which exists in society due to competition between social and economic classes.
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Class System
A system in which people are ranked based on the ownership and control of economic resources.
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Alienation
Separation of individuals from other people and from themselves.
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Anomie
A condition of social instability that occurs due to a breakdown in the norms, values, and culture of an individual or society.
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25 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

This flashcard set contains some of the basic terms that you will find in sociology. These cards will give you a better understanding of society and how it works.

Front
Back
Anomie
A condition of social instability that occurs due to a breakdown in the norms, values, and culture of an individual or society.
Alienation
Separation of individuals from other people and from themselves.
Class System
A system in which people are ranked based on the ownership and control of economic resources.
Class Conflict
The tension which exists in society due to competition between social and economic classes.
Deviance
Behaviors that violate social norms.
Discrimination
Unequal treatment of individuals or groups based on characteristics such as race, religion, sex, or social class.
Ethnocentrism
The belief that one's own culture is superior to other cultures.
Ethnography
Research based on actual observations of the lifestyle of an individual or group.
Exchange Theory
A perspective used to explain social interaction. This theory is based on the idea that people will only help others when the individual benefits outweigh the costs of helping.
Gender Stereotype
Generalizations about the characteristic of an individual or group based on gender.
Ideology
A system of ideas and beliefs belonging to a particular group which shape individual behaviors and perceptions.
Industrialization
The process by which a nation's economy changes from an agricultural to an economy based on the manufacturing of goods. The use of technology and external energy allows an increase in production, a decrease in manual labor, and creates new employment sectors.
Labeling Theory
A theory based on the process by which a person is labeled deviant by other people and that label causes the person to engage in deviant behavior.
Latent Function
Any function of a social system or social phenomenon that is unintentional and/or unrecognized.
Macrosociology
A method of analyzing societies that focuses on large scale structures, processes, and institutions.
Microsociology
A method of analyzing societies that focuses on small scale interactions between individuals and how meaning are attached to the social interactions of other people.
Norm
Social expectation that determine whether actions are socially acceptable or unacceptable.
Pluralism
A system that attempts to balance power between multiple sectors, such as government, business and the public, which ensures that no single sector holds all of the power.
Power Elite
A group of corporate, wealthy, and political leaders who dominate policymaking.
Racism
The domination of one racial group by another based on the belief that one group is biologically or culturally superior to another.
Retreatism
A form of social deviance that occurs when an individual abandons culturally valued goals and the conventional means for attaining these goals.
Role Conflict
A situation in which a person is expected to play two or more incompatible social roles.
Social Inequality
Unequal opportunities or rewards which exist due to one's social position or status.
Theory
A system of ideas, relationships, and concepts that explain how society works.
Values
Shared ideas about what is good, bad, right, wrong, desirable or undesirable.

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