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U.S. Antebellum & Expansion Flashcards

U.S. Antebellum & Expansion Flashcards
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Discovery at Sutter's Mill

California was recently added to the U.S. through the Mexican Succession. James Marshall was overseeing construction on a saw mill for John Sutter when he discovered a shiny object: gold.

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Major focus of transportation technology

Steamboats and canals. Travel time and shipping rates dropped dramatically by utilizing waterways.

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Major area of improvement during the Antebellum Period

Transportation. A number of entrepreneurs contributed to the transportation revolution that provided new and cost-effective methods of travel like roads and turnpikes.

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Seneca Falls Convention of 1848

The first major convention to bring attention to women's rights and was also considered the beginning of the modern feminist movement.

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Major reforms of the Antebellum Period

Temperance to limit and ban the consumption of alcohol, free public education, abolition, and feminism.

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Racism in the North during the Antebellum Period
Despite a growing abolition movement in the North, there was also apprehension about African Americans equality due to racism and competition for low-paying jobs.
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Top priority of southern gentlemen

In southern societies, the men valued honor above all else, doing whatever it took to preserve the dignity of their family name, white women and children.

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The southern economy during the Antebellum Period

The South's economy at this time was centered on cash crops. Many advocated for economic diversity, but resources were spent on land and slaves, leaving hardly anything for investing.

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The two wars during the Antebellum Period

The antebellum years spanned the War of 1812 and the Civil War.

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Transcendentalism
At its core, transcendentalism emphasized the belief that by communing directly with nature, humans could transcend the sensory world and reach the supernatural.
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Romanticism influence on paintings

The generation before Romanticism focused on people, however, with the influence of Romanticism on paintings, dramatic landscapes and outdoor scenes took center stage.

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Romanticism
A reaction to the hyper-rational, scientific approach of the European Enlightenment. The artistic movement focused on the personal, emotional experience through visual art, music and literature.
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24 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

The United States embraced beauty, power, and independence as it thrived in what's known today as the Antebellum period. Transportation, art, and societal improvements like women's suffrage and feminism were embraced while key leaders and presidents fought to expand the territory of the U.S. into California, Texas, Oregon, Maine and other key areas. While relations with Mexico and slavery hit new levels of controversy during this period, the United States ultimately made powerful strides. These flashcards will take you on a deep dive into an exciting time where the U.S. experienced tremendous growth as it expanded into a more complete nation.

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Romanticism
A reaction to the hyper-rational, scientific approach of the European Enlightenment. The artistic movement focused on the personal, emotional experience through visual art, music and literature.
Romanticism influence on paintings

The generation before Romanticism focused on people, however, with the influence of Romanticism on paintings, dramatic landscapes and outdoor scenes took center stage.

Transcendentalism
At its core, transcendentalism emphasized the belief that by communing directly with nature, humans could transcend the sensory world and reach the supernatural.
The two wars during the Antebellum Period

The antebellum years spanned the War of 1812 and the Civil War.

The southern economy during the Antebellum Period

The South's economy at this time was centered on cash crops. Many advocated for economic diversity, but resources were spent on land and slaves, leaving hardly anything for investing.

Top priority of southern gentlemen

In southern societies, the men valued honor above all else, doing whatever it took to preserve the dignity of their family name, white women and children.

Racism in the North during the Antebellum Period
Despite a growing abolition movement in the North, there was also apprehension about African Americans equality due to racism and competition for low-paying jobs.
Major reforms of the Antebellum Period

Temperance to limit and ban the consumption of alcohol, free public education, abolition, and feminism.

Seneca Falls Convention of 1848

The first major convention to bring attention to women's rights and was also considered the beginning of the modern feminist movement.

Major area of improvement during the Antebellum Period

Transportation. A number of entrepreneurs contributed to the transportation revolution that provided new and cost-effective methods of travel like roads and turnpikes.

Major focus of transportation technology

Steamboats and canals. Travel time and shipping rates dropped dramatically by utilizing waterways.

Discovery at Sutter's Mill

California was recently added to the U.S. through the Mexican Succession. James Marshall was overseeing construction on a saw mill for John Sutter when he discovered a shiny object: gold.

Results of Manifest Destiny

An increase in conflict over keeping slavery in the southern states; Texas was annexed and became the 28th state, and eventually war broke out with Mexico.

Settlements in Texas in the 19th century

Mexico had difficulty attracting settlers into the Northeast, so they loosened their immigration standards and encouraged Americans to settle in Texas.

The Republic of Texas

Texas was unique from the other states in the union because before it was annexed, it was an independent republic and sovereign nation in 1836.

Compromise of 1850

This admitted California into the union as a free state; the remaining land from the Mexican cession was divided into states (New Mexico and Utah) with slavery to be decided upon at statehood.

Fugitive Slave Act

Slaves who ran away were not free; accused fugitives were denied trial; many truly free blacks became the victims of illegitimate claims. Slaves who ran away from the North would be retrieved.

Obtaining the 'lower 48'

Achieved through the Gadsden Purchase, Franklin Pierce completed the remaining land of the United States for $10 million, expanding southern territory.

54-40 or Fight

Slogan suggesting that America go to war to get all of the Oregon Territory. President John Polk aggressively pursued all of Oregon territory and argued with Britain about the boundary lines.

The Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Resolved a long-standing border dispute between Canada and Maine
Texas independence from Mexico
In 1836, Texas defeated Mexican General Santa Anna and declared its independence. Mexico never recognized Texas' independence and disputed its borders even after its annexation.
Dispute over Mexican border
Mexico insisted the border was at the Nueces River, while Texas insisted it was the Rio Grande.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The main provision of this treaty was America's right to buy about half of Mexico's land for $15 million (the Mexican Cession), including Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and Nevada.
Manifest Destiny

A widely held belief (often romanticized) in the 19th century of extending America's borders from coast to coast as a God-given purpose (or destiny).

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