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World Events from 1850-1914 Flashcards

World Events from 1850-1914 Flashcards
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The Westernization of Japan
During the mid nineteenth century, the U.S. attempted to westernize isolationist Japan. The U.S. sought to benefit from access to Japanese coal, refueling ports, and trade with Pacific nations.
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The Perry Expedition
An 1853 expedition to Tokyo Bay led by Commodore Matthew Perry, which aimed to encourage the Japanese to open their ports to foreign trade with the United States.
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Manifest Destiny
An ideology which promoted the idea of American expansionism from the Atlantic to Pacific coasts. This ideology encouraged Britons north of the U.S. to form the Dominion of Canada in 1867.
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The Dominion of Canada
A union formed on July 1, 1867, between the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. It came in response to the threats of American expansionism, and entanglement in the Civil War.
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British Involvement in the U.S. Civil War
Britain supported the Confederacy in the American Civil War, though their actual war contributions were minimal.
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Aftermath of the Crimean War
Russia lost the War decisively to Britain, France, and the Ottomans. Russia lost countless lives, Balkan territories, control of the Black Sea, and suffered economic and technological setbacks. This destroyed the stability that was created by the Congress of Vienna.
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The Congress of Vienna
A gathering of the European states that succeeded in defeating Napoleon in the early nineteenth century. The meeting took place in the Austrian capital and sought to prevent future conflict.
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The Crimean War
A military conflict which took place during the early nineteenth century, after European powers failed to establish a peace compromise.
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'Ausgleich,' or the Compromise of 1867
An 1867 compromise between Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph and ruling class Hungarian families. It recognized Francis Joseph as King of Hungary and ruler of territories under Hungarian control.
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Giuseppe Garibaldi
An Italian revolutionary and leader of Giuseppe Mazzini's forces. Garibaldi's successful military efforts in southern Italy were key in its unification.
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Giuseppe Mazzini
The charismatic leader of the pro-unification group Young Italy, which formed during the 1830s. Mazzini favored revolution in order to form an Italian republic.
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The Franco-Prussian War
A mid nineteenth century war led by Otto Bismarck of Prussia against France, which stood in the way of Germany's unification. Prussian victory led to the creation of the German Empire in 1871.
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Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia during the mid nineteenth century and a key figure in German unification, Bismarck was a proud German nationalist who sought the creation of a German state led by Prussia.
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Tsar Alexander II
The leader of Russia during the nineteenth century who implemented sweeping reforms, including the abolition of serfdom, societal and economic modernization, and the easing of censorship laws.
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Dual Monarchy
During the mid nineteenth century, Austria and Hungary formed an alliance known as a dual monarchy, providing political and economic benefits for both states.
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Causes of the Unification of Germany
German unification during the nineteenth century was driven primarily by growing German nationalism and the leadership of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. The wars between Prussia and Austria, as well as Prussia and France, also contributed.
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Camillo Benso di Cavour
The Prime Minister of the island of Sardinia during the early nineteenth century, who led a movement towards Italian unification.
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The Unification of Italy
During the mid nineteenth century, Italy underwent a process of unification, led most notably by statesman Camillo Cavour.
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Flashcard Content Overview

In this collection of flashcards, you will learn about the international developments that took place between the mid nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In Europe, these events include the respective unifications of Italy and Germany, the formation of a dual monarchy between Austria and Hungary, the Franco-Prussian War, the Crimean War, the Congress of Vienna, the Second Industrial Revolution, and the developments of the Third French Republic, Victorian England, and the Second German Reich. In North America, events include the U.S. Civil War, Manifest Destiny ideology, and the emergence of the Dominion of Canada. Finally, in Asia and Africa, you will learn about such topics as the Westernization of isolationist Japan, the Perry Expedition, and the Boer War of 1899.

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The Unification of Italy
During the mid nineteenth century, Italy underwent a process of unification, led most notably by statesman Camillo Cavour.
Camillo Benso di Cavour
The Prime Minister of the island of Sardinia during the early nineteenth century, who led a movement towards Italian unification.
Causes of the Unification of Germany
German unification during the nineteenth century was driven primarily by growing German nationalism and the leadership of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. The wars between Prussia and Austria, as well as Prussia and France, also contributed.
Dual Monarchy
During the mid nineteenth century, Austria and Hungary formed an alliance known as a dual monarchy, providing political and economic benefits for both states.
Tsar Alexander II
The leader of Russia during the nineteenth century who implemented sweeping reforms, including the abolition of serfdom, societal and economic modernization, and the easing of censorship laws.
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia during the mid nineteenth century and a key figure in German unification, Bismarck was a proud German nationalist who sought the creation of a German state led by Prussia.
The Franco-Prussian War
A mid nineteenth century war led by Otto Bismarck of Prussia against France, which stood in the way of Germany's unification. Prussian victory led to the creation of the German Empire in 1871.
Giuseppe Mazzini
The charismatic leader of the pro-unification group Young Italy, which formed during the 1830s. Mazzini favored revolution in order to form an Italian republic.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
An Italian revolutionary and leader of Giuseppe Mazzini's forces. Garibaldi's successful military efforts in southern Italy were key in its unification.
'Ausgleich,' or the Compromise of 1867
An 1867 compromise between Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph and ruling class Hungarian families. It recognized Francis Joseph as King of Hungary and ruler of territories under Hungarian control.
The Crimean War
A military conflict which took place during the early nineteenth century, after European powers failed to establish a peace compromise.
The Congress of Vienna
A gathering of the European states that succeeded in defeating Napoleon in the early nineteenth century. The meeting took place in the Austrian capital and sought to prevent future conflict.
Aftermath of the Crimean War
Russia lost the War decisively to Britain, France, and the Ottomans. Russia lost countless lives, Balkan territories, control of the Black Sea, and suffered economic and technological setbacks. This destroyed the stability that was created by the Congress of Vienna.
British Involvement in the U.S. Civil War
Britain supported the Confederacy in the American Civil War, though their actual war contributions were minimal.
The Dominion of Canada
A union formed on July 1, 1867, between the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. It came in response to the threats of American expansionism, and entanglement in the Civil War.
Manifest Destiny
An ideology which promoted the idea of American expansionism from the Atlantic to Pacific coasts. This ideology encouraged Britons north of the U.S. to form the Dominion of Canada in 1867.
The Perry Expedition
An 1853 expedition to Tokyo Bay led by Commodore Matthew Perry, which aimed to encourage the Japanese to open their ports to foreign trade with the United States.
The Westernization of Japan
During the mid nineteenth century, the U.S. attempted to westernize isolationist Japan. The U.S. sought to benefit from access to Japanese coal, refueling ports, and trade with Pacific nations.
The Second Industrial Revolution
The period between 1870-1914 which saw the advancement and growth of electricity, petroleum, and steel industries.
Mass society
A type of society that places heightened consideration for the needs of the lower classes. It characterizes much of late nineteenth century Europe.
Mass leisure
Refers to the leisurely activities that appeal to the majority of a society's population. In late nineteenth century Europe, socializing at music and dance halls consisted of one example.
The Internal Combustion Engine
An innovation of the Second Industrial Revolution, introduced in 1878, which allowed for the creation of automobiles and airplanes.
The Boer War
A war sparked by Dutch rebellion against British imperialism in South Africa. Violence broke out in 1899 and ended in 1902 with British victory.
The Paris Commune
During the Third French Republic, the radical republicans formed a separate government operating out of Paris, known as the Commune.
The Dreyfus Affair
An 1895 incident involving a Jewish captain in the French general staff being wrongly imprisoned for divulging military secrets. It led to the separation of church and state in France.
Queen Victoria of England
Ruler of England from 1837 to 1901, whose long and prosperous reign was known as the Victorian Age.
The Second German Reich
In January 1871, the Second German Empire, or Reich, was formed with the crowning of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It altered European stability and led in part to World War I.
Friedrich Nietzsche
A late nineteenth century German philosopher who wrote the book 'The Birth of Tragedy', was a proponent of materialist ideology, and advocated the removal of God and Christianity from society.
Karl Marx
A German philosopher who wrote 'The Communist Manifesto' in 1848, which favored the proletariat, or industrial working class. Marx also developed the ideology known as Marxism.
Living conditions in late 19th century Europe
Living conditions improved in late 19th century Europe. Sanitation in cities and food quality were ameliorated, new vaccinations ensured better health, and Europe's population grew significantly.
Mass education
Refers to education that is available to the majority of a given population, which began in Europe during the late nineteenth century.
Ausgleich effects on the Magyar rulers of Hungary
These rulers gained more oversight of Hungary's interior issues
Ausgleich effects on the Hapsburg Empire
Hapsburg became a dual monarch alongside the Magyar Empire
Similarity between the Crimean War and World War I
Forces in both wars had trouble updating battle strategies to match the technology of the day, and large numbers of soldiers were killed due to the use of tactics that had been phased out
Cause of Russian failure in the Crimean War
Russia's economy and technology were outdated compared to the European countries
Purpose of Tsar Alexander II's reforms
After the Crimean War, Tsar Alexander II instituted reforms because he wanted to restore Russia to power
How Camillo Cavour used the international climate of the 19th century to his advantage
Cavour used the strain between countries to form alliances and pit other nations against each other

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