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Math for Kids23 chapters | 325 lessons

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Lesson Transcript

Instructor:
*Lisa Hanson*

Lisa is a Continuous Improvement Coach for her school district and has taught in elementary school for many years. She has a master's degree in curriculum and instruction.

We are shaping up and talking about quadrilaterals. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different kinds of four-sided polygons and their properties. Let's see if we can keep them all straight!

Everywhere you look there are **polygons**, closed shapes that have only straight lines. Polygons that have four sides and four angles are called **quadrilaterals**. They are found in many things around us: doors, windows, books, TVs, pictures, etc. There are six types of quadrilaterals. Once you learn them, you will be amazed at how often you spot them. The picture will help identify each shape as it is described.

A **parallelogram** is easy to remember because its name says it all. It is a quadrilateral with two sets of parallel sides, simple as that. Shapes A, B, C, and E in the picture can all be called parallelograms because their opposite sides are parallel. You can find them all around you, from floor patterns, to windows, to some shapes of food. Many four-sided polygons are called parallelograms, but also have more specific names.

One of the most well-known quadrilaterals, which is also a parallelogram, is a rectangle. A **rectangle** has two sets of parallel sides and all four angles are right angles ( or 90° angles), which are its special properties. The opposite sides of a rectangle are always equal in length. Shapes A and C can be called rectangles. Think of three things in your life that are rectangles. A desk or book would be the shape of a rectangle.

The most recognizable of all quadrilaterals is the square. It is one of the first shapes we learn as a child. A square is also a parallelogram, a rhombus, and a rectangle because it has all of those properties as well. A **square** has two sets of parallel lines, all lines are equal, and all angles are right angles. It must have all of these things to be a square. Shape A is an example of a square. Now let's move onto a couple quadrilaterals that aren't parallelograms.

A **rhombus** is a very simple quadrilateral. It has two sets of parallel sides, and all sides are equal. That is it. We don't worry about the angles with a rhombus. Shapes A and B are examples of a rhombus.

**Kites** are four-sided polygons like no other. A kite has two pairs of adjacent sides that are equal in length. **Adjacent lines** are lines that are next to each other or meet each other. In the picture, the top two lines that meet are equal, and the bottom two lines that meet are also equal. Another example of a kite is shape F. These look like the kites you would fly in the sky.

**Trapezoids** are quadrilaterals with one special property. They are the only four-sided shape to have exactly one set of parallel lines. The other set is never parallel. An example of a trapezoid is shape D. In schools you will find tables in the shape of a trapezoid. Also, if you have played with pattern blocks, the red piece is a trapezoid. This chart shows how trapezoids and all the other quadrilaterals are related to each other.

Let's briefly review what we've learnedâ€¦

**Polygons** are closed shapes that have only straight lines, and polygons that have four sides and four angles are called **quadrilaterals**. There are six different types of quadrilaterals: parallelogram, rectangle, rhombus, square, kite, and trapezoid.

They are related in many ways, but each has distinct properties:

- A
**parallelogram**is a quadrilateral with two sets of parallel sides.

- A
**rectangle**has two sets of parallel sides, and all four angles are right angles ( or 90° angles).

- A
**square**has two sets of parallel lines, all lines are equal, and all angles are right angles.

- A
**rhombus**has two sets of parallel sides, and all sides are equal.

- A
**kite**has two pairs of adjacent sides that are equal in length. Remember that**adjacent lines**are lines that are next to each other or meet each other.

- And lastly, a
**trapezoid**, which is the only four-sided shape to have exactly one set of parallel lines.

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Math for Kids23 chapters | 325 lessons

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