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Acyl Group vs. Acetyl Group

Instructor: David Jones

David has taught General and Organic Chemistry and has a master's degree in Chemistry.

In this lesson, you will learn the similarities and differences between an acyl group and an acetyl group. We will also compare and contrast the structures of each.

Soccer players

Have you ever been to a soccer game? If you have, you know that each team is made up of 11 players. One player does not make up a team, all members must be present for the team to function properly. Each player has a specific position to play. The goalie, for example, is responsible for protecting the goal and preventing the other team from scoring.

Acyl Group vs Acetyl Group

Similar to a soccer player, both an acyl group and an acetyl group are just parts, not the whole thing. They are parts of a molecule. A part of a molecule is called a moiety. So, to complete the analogy, an acyl group and an acetyl group are like the soccer players, and the molecule is like the soccer team.

While an acetyl group is the name of a specific kind of moiety, however, an acyl group is the name of a group of moieties. It would be like calling the acetyl group a goalie, a specific position, while the acyl group would be a defender, the name given to several players on the team whose job it is to defend, including the goalie. So, an acetyl group is a type of acyl group.

Structures

Let's start by talking about the acyl group, a general type of moiety that has many specific moieties classified under it. An acyl group is made up of two parts. The first part is a carbonyl group, which is a carbon double bonded to an oxygen. The second part is an alkyl group, which is simply a moiety made up of only carbons and hydrogens. The simplest kind of acyl group is made up of a carbonyl group and one other carbon with its associated hydrogens.


A simple acyl group
Acetyl group


The acyl group is not limited to a carbonyl group with only one other carbon, however. The alkyl group associated with the acyl group can contain any number of carbons in any number of configurations.


A more complex acyl group
Benzoyl group


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