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3rd-5th Grade Math: Practice & Review37 chapters | 252 lessons

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Lesson Transcript

Instructor:
*Bethany Calderwood*

Bethany has taught special education in grades PK-5 and has a master's degree in special education.

Fractions and mixed numbers are very important in math. Do you know how to use them? In this lesson you'll learn how to work with fractions and mixed numbers while using the four basic operations of arithmetic: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Suzanne is baking a cake, but someone scrambled her recipe. Instead of the measurement for each ingredient, she has a math equation. Can you use the clues to find out how much of each ingredient to include in the cake?

Each equation in Suzanne's recipe includes **fractions**, or parts of numbers, and some of the equations also include **mixed numbers**, or a whole number and a fraction. Fractions and mixed numbers follow some of the same rules when we add, subtract, multiply, and divide, but there are some other rules we follow too. Let's use the rules for fractions to fix Suzanne's recipe.

Take a look at this equation for the cups of flour, which asks us to add fractions together.

Since the original fractions, shown in green, have different denominators (remember, the denominators are bottom numbers), you'll have to convert them to equivalent fractions with a common denominator. Here, 6 is the common denominator, so the equivalent fractions are shown in red. They are equal to the same part of the whole number, but now you can add them together.

When adding fractions, add all of the numerators (top numbers), and keep the same denominator (bottom numbers), like in the blue fraction. Put your answer in simplest terms. For example, if the numerator is larger than the denominator, divide the numerator by the denominator to get a mixed number, like the answer in black (1 5/6).

Now let's take a look at this equation for cups of sugar and subtract some mixed numbers.

The fractions in green have different denominators: 2 and 4. Here, you'll have to find the common denominator, or 4, to get the fractions in red. Subtract the whole numbers. When you subtract the fractions, subtract the numerators and keep the denominator the same. This answer is already in simplest terms, so you don't need to do anymore work.

Let's move onto this equation for teaspoons of baking powder, which asks us to multiply some mixed numbers.

First, turn the mixed numbers into improper fractions, shown here in red. Multiply the numerators together (7 and 3) and then the denominators (5 and 2). The answer is the product of both the numerator and the denominator, shown here in blue: 21/10. Put your answer in simplest terms, which is often a new mixed number (2 1/10).

We'll finish up with the equation for teaspoons of salt, where we'll have to divide some fractions.

Dividing fractions is similar to multiplying in that you first have to turn any mixed numbers into fractions. Flip the second fraction (1/2), as shown here in red (2/1). This is called the **reciprocal**, or inverse, of the fraction. Now multiply the two fractions. Put your answer in simplest terms by making a mixed number. Then reduced the fraction to its simplest form. Here, the answer is 1 ½.

Addition and subtraction of **fractions** and **mixed numbers** are similar: make sure you have a common denominator, finding equivalent fractions if necessary. The denominator stays the same while you add or subtract the whole numbers and the numerators.

Multiplication and division of fractions and mixed numbers are similar: first convert mixed numbers into improper fractions. For multiplication, multiply both the numerators and denominators. For division, multiply the first fraction by the **reciprocal** of the second fraction.

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3rd-5th Grade Math: Practice & Review37 chapters | 252 lessons

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